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gall bladder

produces bile which the liver uses


filters the blood, maintains blood pressure, and removes waste




segmented worms, earthworms




insects, crustaceans


mammals, fish and amphibians


jellyfish, corals and hydras


starfish, sand dollars, urchins


pumps blood away from the heart


pumps blood into the heart


carries oxygen rich blood away from the heart


breaks down, detoxifies blood, makes amino acids, keeps blood glucose level stable


produces insulin and other hormones


carries oxygen poor blood to the heart


acts as a blood reservoir

small intestine

responsible for most of the food digestion

large intestine

excretes waste to the rectum, maintains the body's water balances

tube feet

organ of locomotion for the starfish

Pyloric Cecum

radiated duct of the digestive tract producing digestive enzymes and also allowing food to be stored


glands located in the arms of the starfish that produces gametes

rectal cecum

lateral duct or the terminal part of the digestive tract, where waste is stored before being expelled through the anus


dorsal opening through which gametes are expelled into the water to be fertilized

radial canal

canal running the length of the arm; it receives water from the annular canal, which is passed into the tube feet

ring canal

circular canal in which is filtered water


structures that allows the starfish to take in water from outside the body


used for respiration


pumps blood through the body


phylum of soft bodied animals such as octopuses and squid

digestive system

converts food into simpler molecules, absorbs food

circulatory system

brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells; fights infection, and helps regulate body temperature

muscular system

produces voluntary movement

integumentary system

creates a barrier against infection and injury, regulates body temperature and protects us from UV rays

nervous system

allows the body to react to changes in its internal and external environments

reproductive system

produces gametes, nurtures and protects developing embryo

endocrine system

controls growth, development and metabolism

excretory system

eliminates waste products to maintain homeostasis

lymphatic system

protects the body from disease, collects fluid lost by blood vessels and returns it to the circulatory system

respiratory system

provides oxygen for cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide

skeletal system

supports the body, protects organs, stores minerals and provides a site for blood formation


storage site for solid waste at the end of the large intestine

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