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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
AmStud Civil War Study Material
Terms in this set (45)
Notes on the Contract System: Positives:
- They could choose the best contract offers
- The planter's weren't allowed to abuse them or split up their families
Notes on the Contract System: Negatives:
- Even the best contracts paid very low wages
- The workers often could not leave the plantations without permission
- Many owners cheated workers out of wages and other benefits
- Laws punished workers for breaking their contracts, even if the owners were abusing or cheating them
Notes on the Sharecropping System: Positives:
- The Sharecropper and their families get land, tools, and seed and the owners get really cheap labor
- The Sharecropper gets to keep some of the profits
Notes on the Sharecropping System: Negatives:
- The sharecropper owes more than he earned - so he falls into a cycle of debt
- The sharecroppers and landowners had different opinions on what the land should be used for
- The sharecroppers wanted to grow food so they could feed their families while the landowners forced them to grow cash crops (cotton).
- The sharecroppers had to buy food from local stores because they couldn't grow it. These stores were often owned by the landowners.
- Many white farmers lost their land due to the Civil War. Others lost it to taxes. By 1880, ⅓ of the white farmers in the Deep South worked on someone else's land.
Notes on the Effects of Freedmen's Schools: Positives:
- Educated African Americans who were former slaves
- More than 150,000 African-American students were attending 3000 schools by 1869
- Some African Americans that were educated later became teachers.
- African American groups raised more than $1 million dollars for the schools
- They could provide for their families and get a better education
- The government spent 5 million dollars between 1865-1870 for this purpose
- 10% of African Americans in the South could read
- Children who went to school often taught their parents to read at home
What was the goal of the KKK and what did they do to try to achieve these goals?
The goal of the KKK was to restore Democratic control of the South and keep former slaves powerless. They did this because they wanted the people in the South to not vote for the Republicans. They attacked African Americans, mainly those who owned land or had become rich. They burned homes and beat people. They even killed victims on the spot by lynching for a supposed crime without a trial. They also attacked white Republicans.
The group of Congressmen that favored using federal power to create new order in the South and they wanted full citizenship for freed African Americans.
The process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate States to the Union. Another part of it was giving African Americans greater rights and opportunities. This was used to rebuild the Union after the Civil War. This went from 1865-1877.
This was established to assist former slaves. This agency set up schools and hospitals for African Americans and distributed clothes, food, and fuel throughout the South.
The former Vice-President for Abraham Lincoln who became the president after Lincoln was assassinated. He is a Democrat who was a former slaveholder from Tennessee.
The laws that the Southern states passed that limited the freedom of former slaves.
Rights that are granted to all citizens.
The Amendment that was proposed in 1866 that stated that all people born in the US were citizens and had the same rights (this included African Americans born in the US).
What is the 15th Amendment?
It said that all citizens had the right to vote, including African Americans. In short, it gave African American men the right to vote.
Describe all the things the black codes said.
African Americans had to have written proof of employment in Mississippi. If they didn't, they could be put to work on a plantation. Also, African Americans were forbidden to meet in unsupervised groups. They also could not carry guns.
How many African-Americans served as state lawmakers, how many were U.S. congressmen, and how many were U.S. Senators during this time?
More than 600 African Americans were state lawmakers, 14 were U.S. congressmen, and were 2 U.S. Senators.
Why did Congress pass the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 and what did these say?
They passed the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 because Johnson refused to support the 14th Amendment. This enraged both moderate and radical Republicans so they decided to join forces. So they passed the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 in order for them to control Reconstruction. This act divided the South into 5 military districts, each run by an army commander. Members of the ruling class before the war lost their rights to vote. Also, it said that before the Southern States could re-enter the Union, they had to do 2 things. The first thing was that they must approve new state constitutions that gave the vote to all adult men, including African Americans. The second thing was that they must ratify the 14th Amendment.
List all the effects or parts of the Dred Scott decision (you should have at least 4 but there are more)
- Declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional which meant that it was no longer in effect.
- It gave the southern slaveholders more power.
- The support for the Republican Party grew due to many Northerners wanting to subdue the southern slaveholders growing power.
- Made the Southerners happy and enraged the Northerners.
- Due to the 5th Amendment Congress said that they could not ban slavery in the territories.
- Another effect was that the Republicans charged the Democrats by saying that they wanted to legalize slavery in all the US states and territories
- Caused the Lincoln-Douglas debates.
- They wouldn't free him because he wasn't a US citizen so he couldn't sue US Courts because he was black.
What was the biggest issue debated in the Lincoln-Douglas debates and say at least one thing each person said about that issue.
The expansion of slavery was the biggest issue debated in the Lincoln-Douglas debates. Lincoln said it was "a moral, a social, and a political wrong." But he also said he didn't want to abolished slavery, but instead prevent the expansion of it. Douglas said that "the people have the lawful means to introduce it or exclude as they please." Douglas also thought that the people should decide whether or not to prevent the expansion of slavery and that it wasn't the national government's role to do so. Douglas won the reelection but Lincoln became a national figure.
Why did John Brown attack a federal arsenal and what happened in the attack?
He attacked because he hoped that this would inspire slaves to fight for their freedom. He and 18 followers captured the Harpers Ferry arsenal in Virginia and killed 4 people during the raid. He sent out the word to gather and arm the slaves. Not a single slave joined that fight and the US Marines captured Brown and 6 others, while another 10 were killed. After this, Brown was convicted of murder and treason and then hanged.
How did Northerners react when John Brown was hanged? How do you think Southerners may have felt when they saw the Northern reaction.
The Northerners tolled bells and fired guns in salute as a sign of respect. The Southerners were horrified by the North's reaction to Brown's death and mad at Brown's deeds.
How did the Democrats end up with two people running for president from the Democratic party in 1860?
The Democrats ended up with two people running for president from the Democratic party in 1860 because the Northern Democrats wanted a candidate who would support popular sovereignty. But, the Southern Democrats wanted a candidate who would defend slavery. After lots of debating, they reached a compromise by choosing two candidates for the Democratic Party. In short, they ended up with two candidates because they had different views on slavery.
Who were the 4 candidates in the election of 1860 and what were each of their views on slavery?
The 4 candidates in the election of 1860 were Abraham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, John Breckinridge, and John Bell. Abraham Lincoln opposed the expansion of slavery into the territories. Douglas didn't want the federal government to pass anymore laws on slavery but supported popular sovereignty. Breckinridge thought that is was the federal government's duty to protect slavery in all the territories. Bell just wanted to preserve the Union and didn't want the federal government to pass anymore laws on slavery.
What reason did Southerners give that explained why they felt they had the right to leave the Union?
The reason that the Southerners gave was that states voluntarily joined the Union so therefore they also held the right to leave the Union whenever they wanted.
What was the Crittenden Plan and what happened with that plan?
The Crittenden Plan was drafted because some people wanted to come to a compromise with the Union. The plan was drafted by Senator John J. Crittenden but when it was presented to Congress, it did not pass.
How was the Constitution of the Confederate States of America different from the U.S. Constitution?
It was different because it supported states rights and it also protected slavery in the Confederacy and any new territories it could acquire
The Gettysburg Address's Meaning
One said it says what he said, the other side is what it means.
Says: Our fathers brought forth.... a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Means: That the founders of the USA made a new country with freedom and rights.
Says: we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.
Says: That the Civil War is a test if the US or any democracy can work.
Says: We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place... fitting and proper that we should....
Means: That they came to make this place a memorial (Gettysburg).
Says: ... we cannot dedicate-we can not consecrate-we can not hallow-this ground... The brave men, living and dead... have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.
Means: They can't make this a memorial because the men who died already made it holy/sacred because they died here.
Says: It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us... we take increased devotion to.. that we resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain-that this nation under God, shall have a new birth of freedom-that government of the people.....shall not perish..
Means: That they have to try harder to win the war so the dead didn't die for nothing and so that Democracy survives.
Cause and Effect - Impeaching the President
These are fill in the blank questions
What is the 1st thing that happens?
President Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, is killed while in office.
What is the 2nd thing that happens?
Lincoln's Vice-President Andrew Johnson, a former slave holder from the Democratic party becomes president.
What is the 3rd thing that happens?
Johnson believes Reconstruction is the job of the President. He pardons Confederate officials. He insists that states must ratify the 13th Amendment. The 13th Amendment abolished slavery.
What is the 4th thing that happens?
Southern states pass "black codes" to deny former slaves rights.
What is the 5th thing that happens?
Congress proposes Civil Rights Act.
What is the 6th thing that happens?
Johnson vetoes the Civil Rights Act.
What is the 7th thing that happens?
Congress proposes the 14th Amendment, which states that all people born in the US are citizens and had the same rights. This included all African Americans.
What is the 8th thing that happens?
Johnson refused to support the 14th Amendment.
What is the 9th thing that happens?
Because Johnson and the Southern states refused to support the 14th Amendment, Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts of 1867.
What is the 10th thing that happens?
Congress passes Tenure of Office Act, requiring the President to get the approval of the Senate before firing officials.
What is the 11th thing that happens?
Johnson fires his Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, over disagreements about Reconstruction.
What is the 12th thing that happens?
President Johnson is acquitted and found not guilty by one vote.
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