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Sociology Final Exam
Terms in this set (250)
Cuba's communist government has recently introduced reforms that make it easier to attract tourists. Consequently, many skilled professionals have started working in the tourism industry to earn more money regardless of their degrees. Of what is this a sign?
the increasingly important role capitalism plays in Cuba
The Indian Government has drafted, but not passed as of 2017, a law that would allow Americans to use Indian surrogates to adopt children at a considerable savings compared to what it would cost in the United States
How are workers' situations different in socialist versus capitalist economies?
Workers in a socialist economy do not enjoy the same consumption patterns as those in a capitalist economy.
Which of the following social problems might be alleviated if more Americans were encouraged to telecommute?
New innovations in farming like mechanized seed spreaders and new techniques of crop rotation were part of what macro-level social change?
the Agricultural Revolution
Which of the following is among the benefits of telecommuting?
Businesses get increased productivity and fewer sick days.
Firms that purposely transcend national borders so that their products can be manufactured at sites all over the world are called
What economic change has made it more difficult for workers to strike effectively?
the ease with which manufacturing firms can move operations to another country
How did the Industrial Revolution create "work" in the modern sense?
It used machines to produce more goods, more efficiently.
What is it an example of when liquor stores in the United States import wine made entirely from French grapes and bottled in France or beer brewed from grain and hops grown in Holland?
How has the Information Revolution changed the nature of work?
The importance of the physical space in which work is done has been greatly diminished.
How are "gold farms," such as those set up to play World of Warcraft, different from traditional sweatshops?
They exploit workers to produce virtual goods instead of material goods
Why would a company outsource or contract out labor it might otherwise employ its own staff to perform?
It is cheaper.
What technological development is MOST associated with the Information Revolution?
The cultural and economic changes that result from dramatic increases in international trade and exchange are called
Tactics that are used by workers to take back some degree of control over the conditions in which they work are called
How has union membership changed in recent years?
Membership has steeply declined.
What new technology helped to bring about the Industrial Revolution?
the steam engine
How could telecommuting increase worker productivity?
Telecommuters must usually provide a concrete measure of their accomplishments, not just show up.
What is a sweatshop?
a workplace with poor working conditions, below-standard wages, and long hours
What does Karl Marx claim is true about class conflict?
There have been class conflicts throughout all of human history.
Who led campaigns to end child labor and increase workplace safety?
Thanksgiving is one of the busiest days of the year for many soup kitchens and other groups that provide food to the homeless and the poor. It is also one of the biggest days of the year for volunteers, as many more people decide to donate their time and efforts, making them, even if just for the day, part of the
What effect did the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 have on unions?
It prohibited government workers from unionizing.
Corporations with decision-making, production, and distribution operations spread all over the world are characteristic of
In a capitalist system, what do workers have available to sell?
their own labor
These days, many customer service representatives with whom we talk over the phone are based in India. Which of the following terms applies to this phenomenon?
the death of distance
What are networks of corporations, manufacturers, distributors, and consumer outlets that create products called?
Which of the following groups is engaged in contingent work?
According to critics of globalization, what DISADVANTAGES result from increased international trade?
Multinational corporations will increasingly shape the policies of governments.
According to Karl Marx, where does surplus value come from?
paying workers less than the value of what they create
What do you think Barbara Ehrenreich would say about efforts to reform welfare, which attempted to move people off welfare rolls and into minimum-wage jobs?
She would disapprove because she thinks that low-wage work is demeaning and insufficient for survival.
The economy is not only about money but also about
the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
What change caused people to migrate to cities from rural areas?
the switch to a manufacturing economy
In 2008 and 2009, under the Obama administration, the United States government initiated a large-scale economic bailout of the banking and auto industries. The government invested enormous amounts of money and, as a result, became the majority shareholder in some corporations. According to the text, this means that the United States
is a mostly capitalist nation, but it also has a degree of socialism in government subsidies to businesses.
Workers in large department stores usually are paid on commission, which means they are in direct competition with their fellow employees. According to Karl Marx, the workers may experience
The economic system based on collective ownership of the means of production and collective distribution of goods and services is called
Which change was associated with the Industrial Revolution?
a significant population boom
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his need." This slogan could only be fully realized with
According to the U.S. General Accounting Office, an employer that violates more than one federal or state labor law concerning wages, overtime, child labor, safety and health, or industrial regulation is classified as a(n)
Someone who works primarily with information and develops or uses knowledge in the workplace is called a(n) ________ worker.
Advertising, engineering, marketing, product design, and web design are all examples of ________ work.
How has the Information Revolution changed the nature of work and the economy?
It has shifted the economy toward the production of knowledge and services.
Donald Roy's classic study of the workplace called "Banana Time" showed that
play emerges in even the most harsh and strenuous work environments.
What is it called when nations compete to attract transnational corporations by undercutting their citizens' wages or offering tax incentives?
the race to the bottom
Which area of the economy has seen increases in union membership since the early 1970s?
the public sector
What changes in the economy would be associated with travel agents hiring inmates in minimum-security prisons to take calls and schedule vacations for customers?
the growth of information technology
What term is used for the group of nonprofit organizations that are designed to run as cost-effectively as possible and to direct any earnings back into the causes they support?
the Third Sector
Think about the process by which most athletic shoes are made. Which part of the global commodity chain for these shoes would you be MOST surprised to find in Indonesia?
the advertising firm that scripted the commercial
In 2005, teaching assistants at the University of Oregon went on strike. Which aspect of their job made it easier for them to strike than most American workers?
Their jobs cannot be moved overseas.
According to conflict theory, how does the nuclear family facilitate exploitation?
through a sexual division of labor within the home
What would a music critic call "musical miscegenation" if he or she used the term "miscegenation" metaphorically?
the way white country music and black blues music come together to make rock and roll
How did the Industrial Revolution change the common meaning of family?
It shifted the meaning from extended family to nuclear family
Although Geoffrey Greif points out that "more fathers are rearing children alone following separation and divorce than ever before," which of the following is true about single fathers?
Single fathers are still only about 15 percent of all single parents.
What feature of the nuclear family, as opposed to the extended family, makes it uniquely qualified to serve the needs of an industrial economy?
It makes geographic mobility much easier.
Functionalists view the family as responsible for the reproduction of society in what way?
Correct! It produces and socializes children.
How could new technologies like the Internet decrease the importance of propinquity in mate selection while preserving or even increasing the importance of homogamy?
Correct Answer by bringing people together from all over the world based on similar interests or backgrounds
The physical and legal responsibility for the everyday life and routines of children is called
Unmarried adults who are romantically involved and live together under the same roof are participating in
How is custody of minor children usually handled in divorce cases?
Mothers receive custody in a disproportionate number of cases.
What sort of laws prohibited the mixing of racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, or sexual contact?
A heterosexual couple living in the same household and raising children is defined as a(n) ________ family.
Tasks designed to achieve a tangible goal like washing the dishes or taking out the trash are called
In what would a symbolic interactionist studying the family be MOST interested?
the way gift giving within an extended family makes some bonds more important than others
How are children of divorced parents today different from children of divorced parents in the 1970s?
Children of divorced parents today are considerably less likely to divorce than were children whose parents divorced in the 1970s.
A woman in North Carolina was found guilty of "lewd and lascivious association" because she lived with her boyfriend. Her behavior is also known as
Which of the following seems to make people, in general, more likely to define a group as a family?
he presence of children
Which theoretical perspective would lead you to consider the broader social effects of the division of labor between men and women in the household?
When was the last antimiscegenation law struck down in the United States?
In Japan, some are worried about the effect that the rise in one-child families is having on the foundation of Japanese society. On what sort of theoretical perspective on the family is this concern based?
Given the history of the family, what sort of changes do you think would be most likely to make the extended family more relevant again?
changes in the economy that make people less likely to move away from their hometowns to get a job
American ideology focuses on the importance of marriage and family values and assumes that the family is at the center of almost everyone's life. How does this compare to the way people really live?
Increasingly, both marriage and the family are less central to the lives of average Americans.
Propinquity refers to
Jennifer Mitchell, an adoption social worker, uses a rigorous screening process for potential adoptive parents. She frequently asks
prospective parents about their hopes for the future.
According to the text, what are the major factors involved in forming relationships and selecting mates?
the tendency to choose mates who are similar in class, race, ethnicity, and age
JDate is a website that helps Jewish men and women, especially those who are not practicing Jews or who live in areas where there are not many other Jews, form romantic relationships. What do Jewish people who use this website care about?
Under what circumstances is a father more likely than a mother to be awarded custody of his minor children following a divorce?
when he makes substantially more money than his ex-wife
Jill has become nervous that her marriage may end in divorce since she grew up with divorced parents. One fact that might reassure her is that the rate of ________ has decreased.
How have Americans' attitudes changed, if they have it all, regarding whether marrying someone of a different race is good for society?
Correct! Americans are much more accepting of interracial marriage than they were in the past
Why are remarriage rates lower today than they were in the 1960s?
There has been an increase in cohabitation among unmarried couples.
What is an individual saying when he or she describes someone who is related to him or her biologically as "not really kin"?
The relative has not exercised his or her rights or fulfilled his or her obligations as a family member.
JDate, a dating website for Jewish people, is sometimes used by non-Jews who are interested in dating Jews. These non-Jews are practicing
According to the text, ________ is one of several reasons people live their lives unmarried.
the single lifestyle
The increasing number of Americans who move out of state to attend college will decrease the importance of ________, assuming that students start new romantic relationships in school.
What form does the family take in contemporary society according to symbolic interactionists Jay Gubrium and Jim Holstein?
Correct! "The family" does not exist; rather, family is a fluid, adaptable set of concepts and practices.
Who is more likely to return home after a full day of paid labor and put in a "second shift" at home taking care of domestic work?
Family friends who are referred to as "Aunt" or "Uncle" are examples of
Why do the authors of your textbook reject definitions of family that depend on particular types of people (like parents) and specific types of ties (like marriage)?
They want the definition to be broad enough to encompass a variety of living arrangements.
How does the U.S. Census Bureau define "family"?
two or more individuals related by blood, marriage, or adoption who share a household
Arlie Hochschild's study of two-income families found that women were much more likely than men to do the majority of the unpaid labor inside the home even after a full day's work outside the home. What term do sociologists use to describe this extra labor?
the second shift
In the United States today, very few people marry outside of their own socioeconomic classes, suggesting that there is a high degree of
Before World War II, the United States had no interstate highway system, and traveling to different parts of the country was difficult. This means that ________ must have been even more important in determining mate selection.
According to Kathryn Edin and Maria Kefalas, which of the following is a reason young women of low socioeconomic status have children?
A baby is a symbol of belonging and motherhood can lead to respect from one's community.
Today, who do average Americans have in mind when they think of their families?
a brother or sister
What do sociologists call the tendency to marry someone of a similar background?
Reading children bedtime stories is an important task in many families. What part of reading the bedtime story is an instrumental task?
getting children into pajamas, tucked into bed, and then to sleep
What do sociologists call the tendency to marry someone from a different background?
Until recently, South Korea had laws in place banning marriage between people who belonged to the same clan. This means that they practiced
What kind of task is calling a family member to wish him or her a happy birthday?
Between 1960 and 2014, demographers noticed what type of change in the numbers of unwed individuals living with their romantic partners?
a sharp increase
What does the sociologist Richard Sennett mean when he says that modernity has seen the "fall of public man"?
People increasingly spend time with their immediate families or those with whom they have intimate associations and the home becomes the site of leisure activities.
How are changes in technology changing the nature of recreation?
Recreation is moving inside the home and away from public space
In his study of British television, The Nationwide Audience, David Morley argued that the success or failure of a television program "in transmitting the preferred or dominant meaning will depend on whether it encounters readers" with "codes and ideologies derived from other institutional areas (e.g., churches or schools) which correspond to and work in parallel with those of the program or whether it encounters readers" with beliefs "drawn from other areas or institutions (e.g., trade unions or 'deviant' subcultures) which conflict to a greater or lesser extent with those of the program." Which theory of mass media consumption is Morley using?
the encoding/decoding model
The terms "recreation" and "leisure" are both defined by their difference from
What is a group of like-minded individuals called whose members share a similar sensibility and enjoy cultural products in similar ways?
an interpretive community
Since leisure and recreation are largely commodified, some things that are one person's leisure are another person's job.
How does free time (nonwork time) differ from leisure time?
Leisure time implies the ability to make choices
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 reduced rules on cross ownership and allowed corporations to buy thousands of media outlets. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 is an example of
Some lawyers working for the Department of Justice worry that Google is abusing its power and behaving like a monopoly in the way it charges for ads. What type of suit would it be if the Department of Justice filed a lawsuit?
What does your textbook cite as the ultimate example of the commercialization of leisure?
Jessica loves a new album for its message of female empowerment. Her friend Amal disagrees. Amal thinks the album objectifies women and doesn't do enough to condemn sexism. Which of the following describes Jessica and Amal's disagreement?
a split in the interpretation of a cultural text
Today, four companies sell more than 80 percent of the music purchased in the United States, although this fact is not obvious because the four companies have purchased many smaller record labels over the years. What is this called?
concentration of media power
Your hike might be considered part of the commercialization of leisure if you
buy a $500 backpack with a solar panel to allow you to recharge your electronics.
How has the principle of the free press as a voice of the people been watered down since the founders guaranteed it in the Constitution?
through conglomeration and media concentration
For whom could celebrity stalking be seen as an obligation?
members of the press
Why would media outlets impose self-censorship?
to avoid outside regulation by the government
Today in Zambia, there are plans to develop self-sustaining big game parks where tourists could go and see indigenous plants and wildlife while minimizing environmental consequences. This is an example of
In the 1990s, kids who chanted, "I want to be like Mike!" to express their admiration for Michael Jordan had
a role model relationship with a celebrity
What did the sociologist Dr. Kerry Ferris conclude about lifestyle enclaves as a result of her research on Star Trek and soap opera fan clubs?
They can eventually lead to a greater degree of involvement with the community.
In 2008, to celebrate the release of Lawrence Lessig's book, Bloomsbury Academic Press hosted a competition called Remix the Remixer. Entrants were asked to find a video, interview, or written work of Lessig's, mash it up with another piece of Lessig's work, and create something new such as a video, photo, or text. What is this sort of artistic activity called?
Relatively few people are employed in the leisure and recreation industries.
Many forms of leisure and recreation have shifted from spontaneous or informal activities to formal and organized ones.
Which theory of media consumption combines elements of both the magic bullet theory and the uses and gratifications theory?
Stuart Hall's encoding/decoding model
Some cell phone providers are now offering hardware, like small laptops, and media to play on it, like songs and TV shows. Phone companies believe that each product they offer will encourage and promote other products. For example, phones can easily send data to laptops, which can store media that can easily be watched on phones and so on. What is this called?
What do sociologists call the customs and values expressed in a particular place and in the interactions of the people who hang out there?
Every year Project Censored posts a list of the twenty-five most censored news stories. These stories are "censored" not in the sense that the media are legally prohibited from covering them but rather in the sense that most major media outlets have systematically ignored them and, in the process, determined what the public will think about. What theory explains this?
How did the rise of the suburbs affect the way people used their leisure time?
It encouraged them to spend their leisure time in their own homes.
What is the shift from people making their own fun to people purchasing it as goods and services called?
the commodification of recreational activities
According to the two-step flow model, which of the following would be MOST likely to sway public opinion concerning the ethical treatment of farm animals?
billboard with a famous actress and a slogan on it
An advertisement company uses online data to determine that Kelly is a white twenty-two-year-old female who goes to church every week. The advertisement company uses that data to determine which media advertisements Kelly will see online. How is the company deciding which advertisements Kelly will like?
by sorting Kelly and others into taste publics
What is a media conglomerate said to have when it is able to market its products across a wide range of media?
What is the term for vacations that are designed to minimize the environmental impact of a trip as well as the negative impact on local cultures?
What sort of places can provide opportunities for people to connect in ways that relieve alienation and anomie?
A small child asks his babysitter if he can play "tag." The child means the simple outdoor game wherein one player chases the other players until he or she can "tag" one of them with his or her hand to trade roles. However, the babysitter is confused and goes to the entertainment center to look for a DVD or a video game named "Tag." What phenomenon could be responsible for this confusion?
the commercialization of leisure
What is it evidence of when a Star Trek fan club raises money for an animal welfare organization that is sponsored by the Star Trek actor William Shatner?
the ability of a lifestyle enclave to develop a larger sense of social responsibility
How has technology enabled the shift from spontaneous to organized recreation?
It has made it easier to organize people.
In the early days of country music, there were a number of "family" groups or family members who became professional musicians together. This happened often, in part, because many families made music together for fun. Today, far from singing together, the average family is more likely to have each member put on a pair of headphones and use an mp3 player to listen to music alone. What does this say about contemporary recreation and leisure?
Material goods that we seem to require in order to have fun mediate our recreation and leisure.
Little League baseball and other organized community sports are examples of what phenomenon?
the formalization of recreation
How have activities that were once necessities changed as they have become recreational activities?
They now come with a wide variety of commodities.
Which of the following sounds MOST like recreation as your textbook defines it?
someone computing the amount and type of fuel needed to power a model rocket he or she wants to launch in a park
The ancient Greeks understood this well: A person who is completely private is lost to civic life. The exclusive pursuit of one's self-interest is not even a good prescription for conduct in the marketplace; for no social, political, economic, or moral order can survive that way.What idea or belief system is being described in this quote?
What do sociologists call locations like neighborhood bars and local cafes where people gather to talk?
What sort of activities can be considered recreation?
those that are enjoyable
Daily newspapers were in trouble all across the country during the first decade of the twenty-first century, many having closed and many others poised to do so. This worried some scholars who believed that newspapers are vital for maintaining
Net neutrality refers to the idea that
no Internet-based service or content should be privileged over another.
A series of polls in 2003 showed that people who primarily got their news from the Fox News Channel were significantly more likely to believe that Iraq had played a part in the 9/11 attacks. Many people saw this as evidence of the way the media shaped public opinion, but some believed that those who already believed this simply gravitated to Fox. This is an example of
A bar and grill has a "backgammon night" on the third Wednesday of every month. The bar provides backgammon boards and pieces; a fairly regular group of players come in, share a few drinks, and play backgammon. Of what is this an example?
a lifestyle enclave
A flash mob is a sudden assembly of strangers in a public place for the purpose of performing some novel action (clapping for no reason, singing a song together, dancing, etc.) and then rapidly dispersing. Although they appear to be spontaneous to outsiders, in reality, flash mobs are organized through emails, social networking sites, and text messages. This is a good example of how technology can
make it easier to organize people.
What are the benefits of third places, or hangouts, for society as a whole?
The feeling of public spirit generated in them can strengthen civil society
Seagram's, a company best known for its gin, also owns Universal Records. This is an example of what trend in the media industry?
Which of the following is a basic demographic variable?
According to Georg Simmel, how do city dwellers relate to one another?
in objective and instrumental terms
Chris McCandless lived on his own in the wilderness because he felt constrained and betrayed by a society that cared so little for its individual members. What term describes the attitude to which McCandless objected?
Which of the following is a major area of concern within the four analytic frameworks of environmental sociology?
attitudes about the environment
An environmentalist named Aldo Leopold believed that we need to develop a "land ethic" that "changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it." What sort of attitude is Leopold trying to move our society away from?
The Environmental Protection Agency has a department with a mandate to work for the "fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies." What is this department MOST likely to be called based on your reading in Chapter 15?
the Environmental Justice Department
Which of the following would you expect to see happen in the future if the pattern of demographic transition that followed the Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States is repeated in Africa?
decreasing mortality rates
One of the major problems with slowing greenhouse gas emissions lies in the developing world where many countries are just now starting to burn fossil fuels at the same rate as the industrialized world. Aside from the pollution produced, this is also a problem because there is not enough oil left for the world to burn it at its current rate. To solve this problem, many believe that we need
What sort of pollution is responsible for global warming?
Ecologist Aldo Leopold wrote about his home state of Wisconsin in The Sand County Almanac. In one moving section, he described a triangular cemetery founded in the nineteenth century that, because of its unusual shape, contained a tiny patch of prairie that was unmowed and undisturbed. Every year, sometime in July, Leopold would watch a single silphium plant bloom there, the only one he found in that part of the state. He used this example to discuss the many plants native to the prairie that have been replaced by a few commercial plants grown by farmers. Leopold is observing a change in
To what are environmental sociologists referring when they use the term "environment"?
both the natural and the human-made environment
What would you be considered, according to Herbert Gans, if you move to New York City because you love theater?
Although the federal government plans to store nuclear waste under a mountain in Nevada, many people who live in Nevada are trying their best to have it housed elsewhere. This is a classic example of
The process by which members of a group individually conclude that nothing is wrong because they observe that no one else seems to be worried is called
The city of Mumbai, India, has 14,000,000 people, making it the second-largest city in the world, and it handles the majority of India's maritime commerce. These facts help to explain why Mumbai would be called a(n)
Why are the poor and members of ethnic and racial minorities more likely to suffer health problems that result from exposure to pollution?
They are disproportionately exposed to pollution.
What group was MOST likely to move away from the urban core to the suburbs?
According to the text, which of the following is one of the four major eras of environmental activism?
the conservation era
How are environmental sociologists understanding the environment when they study the problems of waste and consumption?
as a social problem
Damage to tropical rain forests is causing the extinction of many rain forest species, but it is also detrimental to human life. Why?
Rain forests absorb carbon dioxide and provide valuable plants.
Although Los Angeles is infamous for its air pollution and smog, there are many parts of Los Angeles where the air is quite nice, especially in the mountains and by the sea. However, the people who live in these places are disproportionately white; the people who live in the places with the worst air quality are disproportionately likely to be racial and ethnic minorities. This is an example of
How has Earth's population changed in the past fifty years?
It has nearly tripled.
Nature writer Barry Lopez spent time with the Inuit of the Arctic and concluded that hunting societies had different attitudes about the land than industrial ones because "the focus of a hunter in a hunting society was not killing animals but attending to the myriad relationships he understood bound him into the world he occupied with them." What kind of attitude do hunting societies have?
the new ecological paradigm
On July 1, 1908, Theodore Roosevelt signed legislation that created forty-five national forests. Roosevelt was a passionate hunter and believed that all the game in America would soon be gone unless something was done to preserve some wild areas. To which era of the environmental movement does this goal belong?
the conservation era
Today, many parents are worried about the bottles out of which their babies drink because many contain plastics made with Bisphenol A. This is a compound that helps to make hard, clear, shatter-proof plastics, but it might also be a neurotoxin, especially for children. Science has yet to fully explore this issue, but what era of the environmental movement does this concern MOST closely follow?
the modern environmental movement
Which of the following is one of the categories of urbanites identified by Herbert Gans in his ethnography Urban Villagers?
The Environmental Defense Fund hires scientists, economists, and lawyers to lobby the government and to educate the public about the environmental consequences of modern life. They brag that they had a part in passing important elements of the Clean Air Act, California's emissions rules, and a treaty to phase out CFCs. With what era of the environmental movement is this sort of organization MOST commonly associated?
Why is the population in the United States growing given that fertility rates have dropped below the level needed to maintain the population level?
Immigration rates have risen.
What environmental activist is credited with organizing the first Earth Day?
Flint, Michigan, which is dealing with contaminated water, is a majority African American city. Flint, Michigan, has been pointed to as an example of
During the Great Depression in the 1930s, huge numbers of dispossessed U.S. farmers left places like Oklahoma and moved to California. This is an example of
Which of the following would MOST worry Thomas Malthus?
the U.S. government refusing to fund international agencies that provide family planning services
Few people today know that the Milky Way is a spiral arm of our galaxy, which contains such a dense cluster of stars that in the past it appeared not as individual points of light but as a splash of light across the night sky. Why is it no longer visible this way?
In the past, the vast majority of people lived in rural areas and small towns where it was truly shocking to encounter a genuine stranger. Today, most of us live in cities where we are constantly surrounded by total strangers. This leads directly to
During what era did the environmental movement focus on citizen participation and change at the local level?
Some urban planners are working hard to make sure their communities use the same land for multiple purposes. In particular, they advocate for using land "vertically" such as having apartments on top of retail space. This type of planning is called
The shift of large segments of the population away from the urban core and toward the edges of cities is called
Which of the following helped lead to rapid population growth in Europe, around the time of Thomas Malthus, in the eighteenth century?
The belief that humans will find ways to overcome any problems posed by pollution and waste is consistent with what attitude?
What is a person reducing if he or she starts taking public transportation and riding a bicycle?
Why is the "water grabbing" of developing countries possible?
Water is a transboundary resource.
Will world population continue to grow or will it eventually stabilize?
We may not know the answer for many years.
In this ethnography Evicted, Mathew Desmond found that a consequence of not being able to find affordable housing is that getting a job, going to school, and staying healthy become very difficult.
According to the lowest United Nations estimates, the globe will have two billion more people living on it by the year 2050. At that point, the population may actually shrink because, though life expectancy may continue to rise, the average number of children each person gives birth to is poised to drop below 2.1. What demographic variable might make the global population drop?
Climate change causes more severe droughts; stronger and more prevalent hurricanes, tornadoes, and cyclones; and more rain and flooding.
An estimate of the land and water area that is required to produce all of the goods that an individual consumes and to assimilate all of the waste that he or she produces is called
an ecological footprint.
Before the United States invaded Iraq, about 5.5 people out of every thousand would die each year according to a controversial study published in the British medical journal The Lancet. After the invasion, that number rose to over 13. This study was attempting to measure
The Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) protests are an example of a movement that is pursuing environmental justice.
The study of human populations and their impact on the natural world is called
the new ecological paradigm.
Which political party made social justice, community-based economics, feminism, and diversity central to its platform?
the Green Party
How is it possible for you go to Indonesia on vacation and have a conversation with your cab driver about your favorite television program?
What theory of collective behavior would suggest that when crowds come together a "mob mentality" takes over and rational thought disappears?
Which historical event convinced American scholars that not all social movements can be explained in terms of the psychological needs of their members?
the civil rights movement
Approximately 12,000 years ago, in what we now call the Middle East, people began to domesticate grain, which involved a process that slowly spread around the world over the next 6,000 to 7,000 years. In 1984, 8 percent of U.S. households had a computer; by 2008, that number was estimated to be above 70 percent. How do these two things relate to social change?
Both are examples of social change that occurred at different rates.
Focusing on ideas and cultural debates rather than on material things and questioning the achievements of science and technology are both characteristic features of
What would you expect an advertisement to be associated with if you saw that it used the phrase "better living through chemistry"?
Fads often result in lasting social change.
According to Garrett Hardin, how can social dilemmas be solved?
by changing the behaviors of the people involved
Gerrymandering involves the redrawing of voting district borders by the officials in power to benefit a political party.
The decline of traditional communities, the increase in individual autonomy, and a strong belief in the power of science and technology to improve the world are typical of
An office has a "coffee fund," an old coffee can where people can toss change any time they pour a cup of coffee. The fund can be used to buy new coffee for the office when the supply runs out. However, one individual always takes coffee and never puts any money in the fund, which makeshim a
In 2007, hip-hop group Jason Fox and the Hood Presidents uploaded a video of its song "Aunt Jackie" to YouTube. Almost instantly, people started imitating the dance moves seen in the video. Of what is this an example?
The English Premier League broadcasts its games to hundreds of millions of households in more than 200 countries and is reportedly watched by more than a billion people each week. This is what Marshall McLuhan would call
a global village.
Many people think that nuclear proliferation can be best understood as a tragedy of the commons. If someone sees nuclear proliferation this way, which of the following might he or she propose as a solution?
a global grassroots movement demanding that governments destroy nuclear warheads
Although it might cause a great deal of harm in the long run, individual companies have an economic interest in fossil fuels. What is it called when the pursuit of individual gain leads to loss for a larger group?
a tragedy of the commons
The process by which social structures and institutions become global rather than national is called
A company that dumps toxic waste in a river to keep costs down will likely never get caught by environmental regulators. According to Garrett Harden, we can best understand the costs of this action in terms of a
tragedy of the commons.
Increasingly, over the second half of the twentieth century, people in every nation came to watch more of the same movies. What would your textbook call this phenomenon?
MoveOn.org was one of the first groups to successfully organize a large number of people around issues like partisan bickering and the power of corporate lobbies in Washington. This was, in large part, because it used innovative technology to locate, recruit, and organize supporters. This is exactly what ________ theory would predict.
What do sociologists call it when a large number of people either collectively or individually engage in similar behaviors?
Experts have posited that Syria's change from a stable to an unstable country is partially due to an extensive drought. This means that the recent social change in Syria is, in part, due to
a major physical event.
A public goods dilemma occurs when
individuals must give something to a collective resource without necessarily taking anything in return.
Regressive or reactionary social movements are always
working to make sure things stay the same or even to turn them back to an earlier point in history.
Social change happens only at times of great upheaval like the French Revolution or the Civil War.
All successful social movements are eventually incorporated into institutions.
The Promise Keepers are a Christian men's organization that seeks to train men to be better fathers and husbands. They also work to preserve what they call "traditional" family values, in which the man is the head of the household and makes decisions for his wife and family. In this way, the Promise Keepers are
In what sense is it now possible for a country to be "occupied" by an invisible invader that arrives through airwaves and wireless networks?
It is almost impossible to block foreign countries' satellite broadcasts and Internet transmissions.
How does a fad differ from fashion?
Fads become very popular for short periods of time; fashions are widespread styles of behavior that may last for longer periods of time.
What do the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, Nazism, birth control, and Protestantism all have in common?
They all are the products of social movements.
Bhutan's attempt to achieve Gross National Happiness, rather than a higher gross national product, reflects its attempt to
adopt what it believes the "West" does correctly while rejecting consumerism.
Why do people join social movements according to relative deprivation theory?
Joining a social movement is a rational response to inequality or oppression.
Fast-fashion has been created out of consumers' desire to have the "same look" as soon as it becomes popular.
Today, many young people face an unprecedented problem: what to do when their parents try to friend them on Facebook or another social networking site. Technology has given us unprecedented ways to document our lives online, but some are not quite sure how to share this documentation with older generations. What is this problem called?
What was one of the earliest theories of collective behavior?
"An agglomeration of men presents new characteristics very different from those of the individuals composing it. The sentiments and ideas of all the persons in the gathering take one and the same direction, and their conscious personality vanishes. A collective mind is formed, doubtless transitory, but presenting very clearly defined characteristics. The gathering has thus become what, in the absence of a better expression, I will call an organized crowd. . . . It forms a single being . . ." Which theory describes this quote?
Anna's father tried a low-carb diet for a while but stopped when he became aware of a new diet called "paleo." This is an example of
What do sociologists call behaviors that are rational for any given individual but that lead to disaster for an entire group?
The majority of households in the United States now have personal computers. The federal government has encouraged this trend for many reasons, including increased productivity, better education, and a better-informed public. At the same time, there has been an increase in acute injuries related to computers or computer tools. This is an example of
the unintended consequences of social change.
Gerrymandering is an illegal tactic used only by Democrats to disenfranchise the Republican Party and the demographic groups associated with it.
Sociologists who focus on how practical constraints and opportunities can help or hinder a social movement are using
resource mobilization theory.
Which of the following statements about social change is true?
It is always happening.
When did African Americans gain the legal right to exercise their right to vote?
with the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act
What is it called when individual fishing boats harvest more fish each year in order to maximize profits while, as a result, threatening the fish population with extinction?
the tragedy of the commons
People who take advantage of a public good without contributing to it are called
A social movement's long-term development often looks a lot like
Sometimes the motivations for large protests organized by college activists are criticized. Highly organized and attended protests in Washington, D.C., are seen as "spring break" for activists who take part more for an escape and to belong to something than for anything else. What theory would support this critique?
mass society theory
Many have noticed that the U.S. economy seems increasingly focused on producing and managing information rather than on making things. What term or concept could describe this shift?
The relatively short-lived enthusiasm for leg warmers during the 1980s was an example of a
The World Church of the Creator, founded by Matt Hale, wants to stop both religious and racial integration of America. This makes his movement a
regressive social movement.
Why is the "decline" phase of social movements interesting?
After a movement declines, it is possible that the movement changes and continues.
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