Class 1 study guide yay

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What would happen if there is a pathological change within the cell and the ribosomes are damaged?
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If lysosomes stop functioning properly waste would accumulate within the cell. If the enzymes in the lysosomes stopped working properly you would get Tay-Sachs disease. In Tay Sachs the enzymes in the lysosomes to not function properly and results build up in the cells in the nervous system and the retina. Overtime people will go blind and develop motor and mental issues.
If the GA is not working properly the proteins and lipids transport will not work. An example of this is I-Cell disease, in this disease the GA transports enzymes that go to the lysosomes but instead release it into the bloodstream. There are two major problems that will occur. 1) if enzymes are in the blood it will start digesting things not do not need to be digested. 2) the lysosomes cannot do its job because it's missing enzymes and there will be a enzyme shortage. Cell muscoskeltal deformities will begin to be present. There will be a heart lung and CNS problems.
TRUE or FALSE? Passive movement has no required energy.TRUETRUE or FALSE? Diffusion is the process by which substances move from areas to greater to lesser concentration in attempt to reach equilibrium.TRUETRUE or FALSE? Necessary when substances need to move against a concentration.TRUEDefine endocytosis.Cell engulfs material, forms vesicle takes material into cell.What would happen is a patient has hypernatremia (high sodium in blood) ?Na+ wants to move into the cell, but since membrane is not permeable, water will move instead. So the more water will move out of the cell and the cell will shrink. Causing an electrolyte balance.Define pinocytosis.Ingesting fluids into the cellDefine phagocytosis.Involves ingesting microorganisms, damaged cells, and other particles that are then killed/broken down.TRUE or FALSE? Exocytosis involves ingesting something inside of the cell.FALSE. This involves moving granules out of the cell. The purpose of this is to remove any wastes, debris, and ect.Describe how chemical messengers work in the body. What is an example disease?Chemical messengers interact with receptor proteins of other cells to trigger the desired effect. A cell releases a chemical messenger into the extracellular fluid. that chemical messenger will then bind to the other cell. Parkinson's disease is where there is not enough chemical messenger, Dopamine is part of the brain that helps control movement.In nerve and muscle cells, there are channels that allow small ions/ molecules to pass from cell to cell permitting action potentials. What makes this passage of ions/molecules possible?GAP junctionsWhat causes Action Potential? Describe it.Depolarization: an initial stimulus causes cell membrane to become more permeable to sodium, so sodium moves into cell down the concentration gradient and thus depolarization occurs.How must a cell repolarize?Cell must go back to its normal state of no longer letting Na+ in. Also, the Na+/K+ pump must pump the Na+ out of the cell and K+ back in and then they are back at resting membrane potential. Then when ready to be charged again the membrane because less permeable to sodium and more permeable to potassium.A patient comes in with cardiac dysrythmia. What is physiologically happening to this patient?This patient is having problems with the concentration gradient within their cells. When there are problems with the concentration gradients there will be problems with the action potential. If there is a problem with the Na+/K+ pump, the cell will not be able to repolarize and action potentials will not occur.What are the two ingredients for ATP?Oxygen and nutrition.Explain what happens when there is Hypoxia and ATP depletion within a cell?First the cell switches to anaerobic respiration and lactic acid production begins. Lysosomal membranes may also be damaged due to too much acidity in the blood. Ca+ can also enter the cell and too much calcium in the cell can activate a lot of enzyme systems within the cell and the cell will die. Failure of the Na+/K+ pump will result water to enter and the cells will swell.What is free radical formation?atoms are highly unstable and react with key molecules in the cell and damage the cell membranes.