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Period 6 AP classroom study

Terms in this set (30)

"One-third of the population of the South is of the Negro race. No enterprise seeking the material, civil, or moral welfare of this section can disregard this element of our population and reach the highest success. . . .
"To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted I would repeat what I say to my own race, 'Cast down your bucket where you are.' Cast it down among the eight millions of Negroes whose habits you know, whose fidelity and love you have tested. . . . Cast down your bucket among these people who have, without strikes and labour wars, tilled your fields, cleared your forests, builded your railroads and cities, and brought forth treasures from the bowels of the earth, and helped make possible this magnificent representation of the progress of the South. Casting down your bucket among my people, . . . you will find that they will buy your surplus land, make blossom the waste places in your fields, and run your factories. . . . [W]e shall stand by you with a devotion that no foreigner can approach, ready to lay down our lives, if need be, in defence of yours, interlacing our industrial, commercial, civil, and religious life with yours in a way that shall make the interests of both races one. In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress."
Booker T. Washington, Atlanta Exposition Address, 1895
"General [Gideon J.] Pillow . . . suggested that a company be formed with a capital of half a million [dollars]. . . . This company is to place reliable agents, one at San Francisco and the other at New York; these agents shall bring into competition the companies engaged in the transportation of immigrants from Europe, and [Chinese laborers from] the Pacific Railroad. If we can command the capital to pay all the charges of the immigrants from their homes to . . . where they are wanted, they will be able to supply the planters of the five States bordering on the Mississippi river with all the labor that they want at 33 per cent less than it could be got by any individual efforts or enterprise. In recommending the inauguration of this system of labor, the committee are moved by no hostility to our former servants. . . . Just one half of the soil is in cultivation that was so before the war, and that [was] because the labor was not adequate to the demands. 'The negroes have taken to other vocations also, and have left the corn and cotton fields. They have [taken] the place of the white man on the river almost entirely, and have supplanted the Irish, Dutch, and Germans on the steamboats. Our cities are full of them.'"
General Gideon J. Pillow, southern plantation owner, newspaper report of a speech delivered at a convention of plantation owners in Memphis, Tennessee, Memphis Daily Appeal, 1869
Which of the following describes a difference between Washington's and Pillow's arguments in the excerpts?
"The progress of society consists largely in separating . . . people into groups, in giving them different kinds of work to do, in developing different powers, and different functions. . . . This is the method of civilization. . . .
"It is a great gain to humanity to have industry specialized if the unity of the spirit is not broken in the process. But this calamity, unhappily, is precisely what we are suffering. The forces that divide and differentiate have not been balanced by the forces that unite and integrate. . . . Social integration is the crying need of the hour. . . . How can all these competing tribes and clans, owners of capital, captains of industry, inventors, artisans, farmers, miners, distributors, exchangers, teachers, and all the rest, be made to understand that they are many members but one body; that an injury to one is really the concern of every other . . . ?
"We have, however, in society, an agency which is expressly intended to perform this very service of social integration. . . . It is the Christian Church. The precise business of the Christian Church is to fill the world with the spirit of unity, of brotherhood; . . . to promote unity of the spirit in the bonds of peace. . . .
"The spiritual law, the spiritual motive, the loving thought, the kindly purpose govern the whole of life. A factory is never rightly run till the law of love is the supreme motive power. A trades-union is a menace to society until good-will to all men is the guiding principle in all its councils. A corporation without this clause is a curse to society. A railway whose administration sets this law at defiance is a gigantic public enemy. . . . Every one of these departments of life must be brought under this royal law. This is what religion means."
Washington Gladden, minister, Social Facts and Forces, 1897
Which of the following arguments about society during the Gilded Age could Gladden's purpose in the excerpt best be used to support?
"All Indian peoples in the years after the Civil War saw their sovereignty erode. . . .
"Reformers regarded Indian nations as legal fictions which the federal government should no longer recognize. . . . [Civilian and military leaders] disdained Indian sovereignty. . . . Reformers pushed the federal government toward direct supervision of the lives of individual Indians. . . .
"The reform policy had three basic components. The first was the suppression of Indian norms of family life, community organization, and religion. . . . Reformers tried to educate Indian children in order to instill mainstream American Protestant values in place of tribal values. Finally, reformers sought a policy of land allotment that would break up communal landholding patterns and create private ownership. In the end, Indians would be Christian farmers living in nuclear families on their own land. The remaining lands could then be opened to white farmers. . . .
"The strength of Indian communities during this period declined while the power of the federal bureaucracy that supervised them increased."
Richard White, historian, "It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own": A New History of the American West, published in 1991
"As reformers and federal officials alike recognized, the key to 'assimilation' was 'detribalization,' and the key to 'detribalization' was eradication of the land base and communal practices that sustained tribal culture. . . .
"Congress enacted the General Allotment Act (also known as the Dawes Severalty Act) in 1887. . . . The act authorized the president to survey reservation lands, have them divided up into allotments of up to 160 acres, and make them available to Indians family heads. . . . Reservation land that was not subject to allotment . . . would be made available for purchase and white settlement. . . .
". . . While effectively placing all Native Americans under the jurisdiction [control] of the federal government (as opposed to their own tribal laws and institutions), . . . those who remained on the shrinking reservations and maintained their tribal connections . . . continued to be excluded from the 'equal protection of the laws.' . . .
". . .Try as the federal government might to penalize reservation Indians through isolation and dependency, the reservation could in fact become a site of cultural and economic creativity—and of resistance to the projects of the state. Indians regularly traversed reservation boundaries, often in defiance of government regulations and [travel] pass requirements, to visit one another and to exchange labor and goods, extending lines of communication and interethnic relations . . . . In doing so, they deepened their own tribal attachments while developing a sense of pan-tribal Indianness."
Steven Hahn, historian, A Nation Without Borders: The United States and Its World in an Age of Civil Wars, 1830-1910, published in 2016
Which of the following is a difference between White's and Hahn's claims in the excerpts about how American Indian societies changed in the late 1800s?
"The [political] machine represented the dominant urban political institution of the late nineteenth century. . . . Bosses purchased voter support with individual economic inducements such as offers of public jobs. . . . The machine sustained itself by exchanging material benefits for political support. . . .
"By 1890 Irish bosses ran most of the big-city Democratic machines constructed in the 1870s and 1880s. . . . By 1886, the Irish held 58 percent of the seats on the San Francisco Democratic party central committee. . . . 61 percent of the Tammany Society [political machine in New York City] were Irish in 1890.
". . . What accounts for their unusually high group political participation rates? The Irish capture of the urban Democratic party depended on a large Irish voting bloc. In city after city the Irish mobilized politically much more quickly than other ethnic groups. Irish naturalization and voter registration rates were the highest of all the immigrant groups.
"[In the 1860s] Radical Republicans captured control of the New England and Middle Atlantic states. . . . [They] pursued a program of electoral and institutional reform in the eastern states with urban Democratic (and Irish) strongholds. Rather than weakening the embryonic Democratic city organizations, the Radical attack succeeded in strengthening these machines. The election of pro-machine Democratic governors in states such as New York, New Jersey, and California further aided Irish machine building."
Steven P. Erie, historian, Rainbow's End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics, 1840-1985, published in 1990
Which of the following pieces of historical evidence would support the overall argument in the excerpt?
"Economically speaking, aggregated [accumulated] capital will be more and more essential to the performance of our social tasks. Furthermore, it seems to me certain that all aggregated capital will fall more and more under personal control. Each great company will be known as controlled by one master mind. The reason for this lies in the great superiority of personal management over management by boards and committees. This tendency is in the public interest, for it is in the direction of more satisfactory responsibility. The great hindrance to the development of this continent has lain in the lack of capital. The capital which we have had has been wasted by division and dissipation, and by injudicious applications. The waste of capital, in proportion to the total capital, in this country between 1800 and 1850, in the attempts which were made to establish means of communication and transportation, was enormous. The waste was chiefly due to ignorance and bad management, especially to State control of public works. We are to see the development of the country pushed forward at an unprecedented rate by an aggregation of capital, and a systematic application of it under the direction of competent men. This development will be for the benefit of all, and it will enable each one of us, in his measure and way, to increase his wealth. We may each of us go ahead to do so, and we have every reason to rejoice in each other's prosperity. . . . Capital inherited by a spendthrift [person who spends money freely] will be squandered and re-accumulated in the hands of men who are fit and competent to hold it. So it should be, and under such a state of things there is no reason to desire to limit the property which any man may acquire."
William Graham Sumner, university professor, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other, 1883
The excerpt best reflects which of the following economic developments in the late 1800s?
"The purpose of this article is to present some of the best methods of performing this duty of administering surplus wealth for the good of the people. The first requisite for a really good use of wealth by the millionaire who has accepted the gospel [of wealth] . . . is to take care that the purpose for which he spends it shall not have a degrading, pauperizing tendency upon its recipients, and that his trust should be so administered as to stimulate the best and most aspiring poor of the community to further efforts for their own improvement. . . .
"The result of my own study of the question 'What is the best gift which can be given to a community?' is that a free library occupies the first place, provided the community will accept and maintain it as a public institution, as much a part of the city property as its public schools. . . .
"Many free libraries have been established in our country, but none that I know of with such wisdom as the Pratt Library, of Baltimore. Mr. [Enoch] Pratt presented to the city of Baltimore one million dollars [for the library]. . . . It is safe to say that the 37,000 frequenters of the Pratt Library are of more value to Baltimore, to the State [of Maryland], and to the country than all the inert, lazy, and hopelessly-poor in the whole nation. . . .
". . . The problem of poverty and wealth, of employer and employed, will be practically solved whenever the time of the [wealthy] few is given, and their wealth is administered during their lives, for the best good of that portion of the community which has not been burdened by the responsibilities which attend the possession of wealth."
Andrew Carnegie, "The Best Fields for Philanthropy," North American Review, 1889
The excerpt best serves as evidence for which of the following developments in the late 1800s?