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Period 6 AP classroom study
Terms in this set (30)
The cartoon suggests that the disparate groups that favored the People's (Populist) Party typically shared which of the following?
Belief in a stronger federal government role in the United States economic system
"We demand a graduated income tax. . . . Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the government should own and operate the railroads. . . . The land, including all the natural sources of wealth, is the heritage of the people, and should not be monopolized for speculative purposes, and alien ownership of land should be prohibited.... [W]e demand a free ballot and a fair count . . . to every legal voter.... [W]e favor a constitutional provision limiting the office of President and Vice-President to one term, and providing for the election of Senators of the United States by a direct vote of the people."
People's (Populist) Party platform, 1892
Activists formed the Populist Party most directly in response to the
growth of corporate power in agriculture and economic instability in farming
"As the early years at Hull House show, female participation in that area of reform grew out of a set of needs and values peculiar to middle-class women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Settlement workers did not set out to become reformers. They were rather women trying to fulfill existing social expectations for self-sacrificing female service while at the same time satisfying their need for public recognition, authority, and independence. In the process of attempting to weave together a life of service and professional accomplishment, they became reformers as the wider world defined them."
— Robyn Muncy, historian, Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1890-1935, published in 1991
Settlement house work as described by Muncy had the most in common with women's activism during which of the following earlier periods?
The Second Great Awakening in the first half of the 1800s
"Yet, after all our years of toil and privation, dangers and hardships upon the ... frontier, monopoly is taking our homes from us by an infamous system of mortgage foreclosure, the most infamous that has ever disgraced the statutes of a civilized nation. ... How did it happen? The government, at the bid of Wall Street, repudiated its contracts with the people; the circulating medium was contracted. ... As Senator Plumb [of Kansas] tells us, 'Our debts were increased, while the means to pay them was decreased.' [A]s grand Senator ... Stewart [of Nevada] puts it, 'For twenty years the market value of the dollar has gone up and the market value of labor has gone down, till today the American laborer, in bitterness and wrath, asks which is the worst: the black slavery that has gone or the white slavery that has come?'"
— Mary Elizabeth Lease, speech to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1890
In the speech, Lease was reacting primarily to the problems faced by which of the following groups?
Which of the following was a difference between the immigration from 1865 to 1895 depicted in the graph and immigration in the 1840s and 1850s?
More immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s arrived with cultural practices similar to those of Americans than did the immigrants who arrived between 1865 and 1895.
"One-third of the population of the South is of the Negro race. No enterprise seeking the material, civil, or moral welfare of this section can disregard this element of our population and reach the highest success. . . .
"To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted I would repeat what I say to my own race, 'Cast down your bucket where you are.' Cast it down among the eight millions of Negroes whose habits you know, whose fidelity and love you have tested. . . . Cast down your bucket among these people who have, without strikes and labour wars, tilled your fields, cleared your forests, builded your railroads and cities, and brought forth treasures from the bowels of the earth, and helped make possible this magnificent representation of the progress of the South. Casting down your bucket among my people, . . . you will find that they will buy your surplus land, make blossom the waste places in your fields, and run your factories. . . . [W]e shall stand by you with a devotion that no foreigner can approach, ready to lay down our lives, if need be, in defence of yours, interlacing our industrial, commercial, civil, and religious life with yours in a way that shall make the interests of both races one. In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress."
Booker T. Washington, Atlanta Exposition Address, 1895
"General [Gideon J.] Pillow . . . suggested that a company be formed with a capital of half a million [dollars]. . . . This company is to place reliable agents, one at San Francisco and the other at New York; these agents shall bring into competition the companies engaged in the transportation of immigrants from Europe, and [Chinese laborers from] the Pacific Railroad. If we can command the capital to pay all the charges of the immigrants from their homes to . . . where they are wanted, they will be able to supply the planters of the five States bordering on the Mississippi river with all the labor that they want at 33 per cent less than it could be got by any individual efforts or enterprise. In recommending the inauguration of this system of labor, the committee are moved by no hostility to our former servants. . . . Just one half of the soil is in cultivation that was so before the war, and that [was] because the labor was not adequate to the demands. 'The negroes have taken to other vocations also, and have left the corn and cotton fields. They have [taken] the place of the white man on the river almost entirely, and have supplanted the Irish, Dutch, and Germans on the steamboats. Our cities are full of them.'"
General Gideon J. Pillow, southern plantation owner, newspaper report of a speech delivered at a convention of plantation owners in Memphis, Tennessee, Memphis Daily Appeal, 1869
Which of the following describes a difference between Washington's and Pillow's arguments in the excerpts?
Pillow proposes that immigrant laborers should be recruited to work in agriculture, while Washington proposes that African Americans should be recruited instead.
All of the following account for nativist sentiment against the "new immigrants" of the late nineteenth century EXCEPT that the immigrants
dominate the professions of law, medicine, and engineering
Which of the following developments helps to explain the change in agriculture depicted in the graph?
The extraction of western resources led to the growth of new towns and cities that demanded agricultural goods.
Which of the following best accounts for the curve on the graph above depicting immigration to the United States from Asia, Africa and the Americas between 1882 and 1900?
Restrictive congressional legislation
"Article 2: [T]he United States now solemnly agrees that no persons... shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in... this reservation for the use of said Indians.
"Article 6: If any individual belonging to said tribes of Indians, or legally incorporated with them, being the head of a family, shall desire to commence farming, he shall have the privilege to select...a tract of land within said reservation, not exceeding three hundred and twenty acres in extent.
"Article 11: [T]he tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all right to occupy permanently the territory outside their reservations . . . but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands north of North Platte, and on the Republican Fork of the Smoky Hill river, so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the chase. . . . They will withdraw all opposition to the construction of the railroads now being built on the plains. . . . They will not attack any persons at home, or travelling, nor molest or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle belonging to the people of the United States."
Second Treaty of Fort Laramie, agreed between the United States government and various bands of the Sioux nation, 1868
Article 6 of the treaty most likely reflected which of the following sentiments?
A hope held by some in government that American Indians would adopt lifestyles similar to the lifestyles of White settlers
By the 1870s, which of the following most reflected the continuation of the trend depicted on the maps?
The completion of transcontinental railroads
"We believe that the time has come when the railroad corporations will either own the people or the people must own the railroads ... We demand a national currency, safe, sound, and flexible ... We demand a graduated income tax ... We demand a free ballot."
Which of the following groups included the passage above in its platform?
People's Party (Populists)
First. - That the union of the labor forces of theUnited States this day consummated shall bepermanent and perpetual.
Second. - Wealth belongs to him who creates it. . . .The interests of rural and civil labor are the same;their enemies are identical. . . .
1. We demand free and unlimited coinage of silverand gold at the present legal ratio of 16 to 1. . . .
3. We demand a graduated income tax. . . .
RESOLVED, That we demand a free ballot and a faircount in all elections . . . through the adoption ofthe Australian or secret ballot system.
The excerpts above appeared in the platform of which of the following political parties?
"The progress of society consists largely in separating . . . people into groups, in giving them different kinds of work to do, in developing different powers, and different functions. . . . This is the method of civilization. . . .
"It is a great gain to humanity to have industry specialized if the unity of the spirit is not broken in the process. But this calamity, unhappily, is precisely what we are suffering. The forces that divide and differentiate have not been balanced by the forces that unite and integrate. . . . Social integration is the crying need of the hour. . . . How can all these competing tribes and clans, owners of capital, captains of industry, inventors, artisans, farmers, miners, distributors, exchangers, teachers, and all the rest, be made to understand that they are many members but one body; that an injury to one is really the concern of every other . . . ?
"We have, however, in society, an agency which is expressly intended to perform this very service of social integration. . . . It is the Christian Church. The precise business of the Christian Church is to fill the world with the spirit of unity, of brotherhood; . . . to promote unity of the spirit in the bonds of peace. . . .
"The spiritual law, the spiritual motive, the loving thought, the kindly purpose govern the whole of life. A factory is never rightly run till the law of love is the supreme motive power. A trades-union is a menace to society until good-will to all men is the guiding principle in all its councils. A corporation without this clause is a curse to society. A railway whose administration sets this law at defiance is a gigantic public enemy. . . . Every one of these departments of life must be brought under this royal law. This is what religion means."
Washington Gladden, minister, Social Facts and Forces, 1897
Which of the following arguments about society during the Gilded Age could Gladden's purpose in the excerpt best be used to support?
Advocates of the Social Gospel emphasized putting religious principles into practice in society.
"All Indian peoples in the years after the Civil War saw their sovereignty erode. . . .
"Reformers regarded Indian nations as legal fictions which the federal government should no longer recognize. . . . [Civilian and military leaders] disdained Indian sovereignty. . . . Reformers pushed the federal government toward direct supervision of the lives of individual Indians. . . .
"The reform policy had three basic components. The first was the suppression of Indian norms of family life, community organization, and religion. . . . Reformers tried to educate Indian children in order to instill mainstream American Protestant values in place of tribal values. Finally, reformers sought a policy of land allotment that would break up communal landholding patterns and create private ownership. In the end, Indians would be Christian farmers living in nuclear families on their own land. The remaining lands could then be opened to white farmers. . . .
"The strength of Indian communities during this period declined while the power of the federal bureaucracy that supervised them increased."
Richard White, historian, "It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own": A New History of the American West, published in 1991
"As reformers and federal officials alike recognized, the key to 'assimilation' was 'detribalization,' and the key to 'detribalization' was eradication of the land base and communal practices that sustained tribal culture. . . .
"Congress enacted the General Allotment Act (also known as the Dawes Severalty Act) in 1887. . . . The act authorized the president to survey reservation lands, have them divided up into allotments of up to 160 acres, and make them available to Indians family heads. . . . Reservation land that was not subject to allotment . . . would be made available for purchase and white settlement. . . .
". . . While effectively placing all Native Americans under the jurisdiction [control] of the federal government (as opposed to their own tribal laws and institutions), . . . those who remained on the shrinking reservations and maintained their tribal connections . . . continued to be excluded from the 'equal protection of the laws.' . . .
". . .Try as the federal government might to penalize reservation Indians through isolation and dependency, the reservation could in fact become a site of cultural and economic creativity—and of resistance to the projects of the state. Indians regularly traversed reservation boundaries, often in defiance of government regulations and [travel] pass requirements, to visit one another and to exchange labor and goods, extending lines of communication and interethnic relations . . . . In doing so, they deepened their own tribal attachments while developing a sense of pan-tribal Indianness."
Steven Hahn, historian, A Nation Without Borders: The United States and Its World in an Age of Civil Wars, 1830-1910, published in 2016
Which of the following is a difference between White's and Hahn's claims in the excerpts about how American Indian societies changed in the late 1800s?
White claims that reservations reduced American Indian autonomy from the United States, while Hahn claims reservations could be used to resist federal encroachment.
"If they dare to come out in the open field and defend the gold standard as a good thing, we will fight them to the uttermost. Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the commercial interests, the laboring interests, and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
William Jennings Bryan, 1896
Which of the following groups would most likely agree with the quote above?
The union membership card pictured above is designed to accomplish which of the following?
Link union membership with patriotic and religious images
"The [political] machine represented the dominant urban political institution of the late nineteenth century. . . . Bosses purchased voter support with individual economic inducements such as offers of public jobs. . . . The machine sustained itself by exchanging material benefits for political support. . . .
"By 1890 Irish bosses ran most of the big-city Democratic machines constructed in the 1870s and 1880s. . . . By 1886, the Irish held 58 percent of the seats on the San Francisco Democratic party central committee. . . . 61 percent of the Tammany Society [political machine in New York City] were Irish in 1890.
". . . What accounts for their unusually high group political participation rates? The Irish capture of the urban Democratic party depended on a large Irish voting bloc. In city after city the Irish mobilized politically much more quickly than other ethnic groups. Irish naturalization and voter registration rates were the highest of all the immigrant groups.
"[In the 1860s] Radical Republicans captured control of the New England and Middle Atlantic states. . . . [They] pursued a program of electoral and institutional reform in the eastern states with urban Democratic (and Irish) strongholds. Rather than weakening the embryonic Democratic city organizations, the Radical attack succeeded in strengthening these machines. The election of pro-machine Democratic governors in states such as New York, New Jersey, and California further aided Irish machine building."
Steven P. Erie, historian, Rainbow's End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics, 1840-1985, published in 1990
Which of the following pieces of historical evidence would support the overall argument in the excerpt?
People of Irish descent in New York City registered to vote at a higher rate than their proportion of the population in the 1890s.
African Americans who fled the violence of the Reconstruction South in 1879 and 1880 to start anew in Kansas were known as
"So many people ask me what they shall do; so few tell me what they can do.Yet this is the pivot wherein all must turn.
"I believe that each of us who has his place to make should go where men are wanted, and where employment is not bestowed as alms. Of course, I say to all who are in want of work, GoWest! . . .
"On the whole I say, stay where you are; do as well as you can; and devote every spare hour to making yourself familiar with the conditions and dexterity required for the efficient conservation of out-door industry in a new country. Having mastered these, gather up your family and GoWest!"
Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, letter to R. L. Sanderson, 1871
The advice in the excerpt most directly reflects the influence of which of the following prevailing American ideas?
"Every contract, combination in form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce in any territory of the United States . . .is hereby declared illegal."
The passage above was most effectively used for which purpose in the late nineteenth century?
Limiting the power of labor unions
"Economically speaking, aggregated [accumulated] capital will be more and more essential to the performance of our social tasks. Furthermore, it seems to me certain that all aggregated capital will fall more and more under personal control. Each great company will be known as controlled by one master mind. The reason for this lies in the great superiority of personal management over management by boards and committees. This tendency is in the public interest, for it is in the direction of more satisfactory responsibility. The great hindrance to the development of this continent has lain in the lack of capital. The capital which we have had has been wasted by division and dissipation, and by injudicious applications. The waste of capital, in proportion to the total capital, in this country between 1800 and 1850, in the attempts which were made to establish means of communication and transportation, was enormous. The waste was chiefly due to ignorance and bad management, especially to State control of public works. We are to see the development of the country pushed forward at an unprecedented rate by an aggregation of capital, and a systematic application of it under the direction of competent men. This development will be for the benefit of all, and it will enable each one of us, in his measure and way, to increase his wealth. We may each of us go ahead to do so, and we have every reason to rejoice in each other's prosperity. . . . Capital inherited by a spendthrift [person who spends money freely] will be squandered and re-accumulated in the hands of men who are fit and competent to hold it. So it should be, and under such a state of things there is no reason to desire to limit the property which any man may acquire."
William Graham Sumner, university professor, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other, 1883
The excerpt best reflects which of the following economic developments in the late 1800s?
The increase in wealth inequality in United States society
"When [Robert E.] Lee surrendered . . . the South became, and has since been, loyal to this Union. We fought hard enough to know that we were whipped, and in perfect frankness accept as final the [arbitration] of the sword to which we had appealed. . . .
"The old South rested everything on slavery and agriculture, unconscious that these could neither give nor maintain healthy growth. The new South presents a perfect democracy, the oligarchs leading in the popular movement—a social system compact and closely knitted, less splendid on the surface, but stronger at the core—a hundred farms for every plantation, fifty homes for every palace—and a diversified industry that meets the complex need of this complex age.
"The new South is enamored of her new work. Her soul is stirred with the breath of a new life. The light of a grander day is falling fair on her face. She is thrilling with the consciousness of growing power and prosperity. As she stands upright, full-statured and equal among the people of the earth, breathing the keen air and looking out upon the expanded horizon, she understands that her emancipation came because through the inscrutable wisdom of God her honest purpose was crossed, and her brave armies were beaten."
Henry W. Grady, Georgia newspaper editor and Democratic political activist, speech in New York City, 1886
Which of the following arguments about Southern society in the late 1800s could the excerpt's point of view best be used to support?
Southern politicians promoted economic integration with the North.
"The purpose of this article is to present some of the best methods of performing this duty of administering surplus wealth for the good of the people. The first requisite for a really good use of wealth by the millionaire who has accepted the gospel [of wealth] . . . is to take care that the purpose for which he spends it shall not have a degrading, pauperizing tendency upon its recipients, and that his trust should be so administered as to stimulate the best and most aspiring poor of the community to further efforts for their own improvement. . . .
"The result of my own study of the question 'What is the best gift which can be given to a community?' is that a free library occupies the first place, provided the community will accept and maintain it as a public institution, as much a part of the city property as its public schools. . . .
"Many free libraries have been established in our country, but none that I know of with such wisdom as the Pratt Library, of Baltimore. Mr. [Enoch] Pratt presented to the city of Baltimore one million dollars [for the library]. . . . It is safe to say that the 37,000 frequenters of the Pratt Library are of more value to Baltimore, to the State [of Maryland], and to the country than all the inert, lazy, and hopelessly-poor in the whole nation. . . .
". . . The problem of poverty and wealth, of employer and employed, will be practically solved whenever the time of the [wealthy] few is given, and their wealth is administered during their lives, for the best good of that portion of the community which has not been burdened by the responsibilities which attend the possession of wealth."
Andrew Carnegie, "The Best Fields for Philanthropy," North American Review, 1889
The excerpt best serves as evidence for which of the following developments in the late 1800s?
The emergence of arguments that wealthy people had a moral obligation to help society
The cartoon above is a commentary on late-nineteenth-century
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the formation of labor unions was often a response to
low wages and dangerous conditions in industrial work
The American Federation of Labor under the leadership of Samuel Gompers organized
skilled workers in craft unions in order to achieve economic gains
In the three decades following the Civil War, the policies of the Republican Party generally favored
northern industrial interests
"Americans faced an overwhelming task after the Civil War and emancipation: how to understand the tangled relationship between two profound ideas—healing and justice.... [T]hese two aims never developed in historical balance. One might conclude that this imbalance between outcomes of sectional healing and racial justice was simply America's inevitable historical condition....But theories of inevitability...are rarely satisfying.... The sectional reunion after so horrible a civil war was a political triumph by the late nineteenth century, but it could not have been achieved without the resubjugation of many of those people whom the war had freed from centuries of bondage. This is the tragedy lingering on the margins and infesting the heart of American history from Appomattox to World War I."
David W. Blight, historian, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory, 2001
Which of the following best characterizes the "sectional reunion" Blight describes?
The federal government removed troops from the South and eliminated aid for former slaves.
The chart above supports which of the following conclusions regarding economic conditions in the United States during the last third of the nineteenth century?
Many American farmers struggled financially.
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