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Chapter 15: Crisis and Resurgence, 1969-2000
Key Terms and people in Chapter 15: Crisis and Resurgence, 1969-2000
Terms in this set (39)
37th President; 1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
Tinker v. Des Moines
(1969) upheld student's rights to express themselves by wearing black armbands symbolizing protest of the Vietnam War.
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Amish challenged law that children must attend school until they are 16 because they felt that after 8th grade education students became corrupted; ruled that the Wisconsin law has to establish a compelling government interest and is the least restrictive means, so therefore had to be changed (violated Free Exercise clause of 1st Amendment and 14th Amendment)
A conservative female political activist. She stopped the ERA from being passed, seeing that it would hinder women more than it would help them.
Environmental Protection Act (EPA)
(1970) an independent federal agency, signed into law by President Nixon, established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Endangered Species Act
(1973) identifies threatened and endangered species in the U.S., and puts their protection ahead of economic considerations
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
A scandal involving an illegal break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in 1972 by members of President Nixon's reelection campaign staff. Before Congress could vote to impeach Nixon for his participation in covering up the break-in, Nixon resigned from the presidency.
(1974-1977), Vice-President placed into office of President after Nixon resigned; pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed; evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam, closing the war; defeated by Jimmy Carter.
An international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices. It's long name is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
(1977-1981), 39th President; created the Department of Energy and the Department of Education; was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan; enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow; and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan; U.S. suffered from high interest rates during his administration; defeated by Ronald Reagan.
Camp David Accords
(1978) were negotiated at the presidential retreat of Camp David by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin; they were brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter; led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and responsible for normalizing diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries.
Iran Hostage Crisis
"Occupation of the American Embassy", was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the U.S.; Fifty two Americans were held hostage from November 4, 1979 to January 20,1981, (a total of 444 days); a group of Islamist students and militants supporting the Iranian Revolution took over the American Embassy in Tehran ending after Ronald Reagan became President.
Representative from Georgia who led the "Contract with America" and eventually became the Speaker of the House; he and Clinton battled many times while he demanded tax cuts and a balancing of the budget
1980 and 1984; Republican; "Reagan Revolution": reduce reliance on government; Reagonomics: supply-side, laissez-faire, send troops to Grenada, escalated the Cold War: "rollback" of communism, Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars); War on Drugs, Iran-Contra affair, second term-ended cold war ("tear down this wall" (Berlin Wall))
Area corresponding to the South and Southwest of the United States, which experienced a population growth starting in the 1970s
Peace through Strength
Reagan's policy of combating communism by building up the military, including aggressive development of new weapons systems.
A program to protect the United States against attack by enemy missiles, proposed in 1983 by President Ronald Reagan, but never implemented- formally known as the Strategic Defense Initiative.
(1981)The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side(cut income taxes), and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth, umemployed started going back to work.
US would support freedom fighters trying to overthrow Communist regimes; applied in Nicaragua, Angola, Cambodia and Afghanistan
Sandra Day O'Connor
(b. 1930) Arizona state senator from 1969 to 1974, appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals in 1979. Reagan appointed her to the U.S. Supreme Court, making her the first female Justice of the Supreme Court.
An international trading framework that enables governments to negotiate a set of rules to govern cross-border trade and lower trade barriers. For the first 50 years, the framework was known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). For the last 16 years, it has been known as the World Trade Organization (WTO).
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows free/open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada.
National Rifle Association (NRA)
Organization which lists as its goals the protection of the Second Amendment of the United States Bill of Rights and the promotion of firearm ownership rights as well as marksmanship. Powerful Lobby
Conservative american think tank in Washington D.C to promote conservative public policies. based the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional american values and a strong national defense.
A movement begun in the early 1980's among religious conservatives that supported primarily conservative Republicans opposed to abortion, communism and liberalism.
During the second term of the Reagan administration, government officials sold missiles to Iran (hoping that this would help free American hostages held in Lebanon); money from this sale was used to aid anti-communist Contra forces in Nicaragua. Iran was a country that was supposed to be on the American "no trade" list because of their taking of American hostages, and congressional legislation had been enacted making it illegal to give money to the Contras. A major scandal for the Reagan administration.
Contract with America
In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limits for members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut.
George H.W. Bush
(1988); Republican; increased welfare and unemployment benefits during a recession; yielded to Democrat Congress on economic issues; signed the American with Disabilities Act; sent troops to Panama, Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 ending the Cold War; sent troops to fight Sadaam Hussein in the Persian Gulf War known as "Desert Storm"; initiated the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Northern Industrial States of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the USA and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
Persian Gulf War
(1990 - 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States' coalition emerging victorious.
1992 and 1996; Democrat; Don't Ask Don't Tell policy implemented by Congress, Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, Travelgate controversy; Operation Desert Fox (4 day bombing campaign in Iraq); Scandals: Whitewater controversy, Lewinsky scandal (impeached and acquited), Travelgate controversy, Troopergate; first balanced budget since 1969.
A formal accusation of misconduct in office against a public official, used against President Clinton after dishonest statements when testifying on the witness stand during his presidency.
First Lady from 1992-2000; maintained a significant career as First Lady; attacked by conservatives and anti-feminists; took leading role in government affairs; promoted equality of sexes, Headed up President Clinton's effort to reform US healthcare; served as Secretary of State under President Obama.
American computer software designer who Co-founded Microsoft and built it into one of the Largest computer software manufacturers
Businessman, entrepreneur, best known for founding the retailers Walmart and Sam's Club.
Daughter of Jewish immigrants; She was an American business magnate; the co-founder, along with her husband, Joseph Lauder, of Estee Lauder cosmetic companies; the only woman on TIME magazine's 1998 list of the 20 most influential business geniuses of the 20th century; the recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedoms; and, inducted to the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1988.
The first African-American billionaire who was the founder of Black Entertainment Television, BET, BET became the first African-American managed company listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
Lionel is the founder of Sosa, Bromley, Aguilar & Associates, now Bromley Communications, the largest Hispanic advertising agency in the U.S
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