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Medical Interventions 1.1.5 ELISA
Terms in this set (11)
How do antibodies keep us well?
Antibodies are released when there is an antigen present in the blood. T-lymphocytes will then attack and destroy the marked antigens.
How do antibodies allow scientists to target and identify specific disease agents?
Antibodies mark antigens, so the T-lymphocytes can find and destroy the antigen. Scientists can use this to mark the intended disease agent so it is easier to identify.
Why is the secondary antibody used in an ELISA test conjugated with an enzyme? What happens when this enzyme meets up with its substrate?
The secondary antibody is conjugated with an enzyme because it shows the concentration, The enzyme substrate reaction shows a color change, which again shows how many antibodies are present.
Disease samples were collected from two patients and subjected to serial dilutions before running an ELISA. What does it mean if the disease can be detected in samples from one person only at a dilution of 1/5, but the disease can be detected in the other patient at a dilution of 1/5 and 1/100?
This means that the two patients have the disease, but the second patient has the disease at a stronger level than the first patient.
Describe a situation that illustrates why it is a good idea to complete the ELISA in triplicate.
In case there is cross contamination between samples, or a mistake is made.
Why do you think college students living in dorms are populations that often see meningitis outbreaks?
They all live in close quarters to each other, and some of them have bad habits. College students live under stress, and with the amount of studying needed they lose sleep.
How did ELISA data allow you to track the path of infection at the college?
The ELISA test helped show the concentrations of antibodies in the students, which helped us see how far the disease had progressed. The deeper the color of the solution, the more antibodies are present.
Discuss the limitations of using antigen concentration to deduce the path of infection.
If a person has been vaccinated, there will already be some antibodies present in the blood, causing the ELISA test to be inaccurate.
The ELISA test can also be used to detect antibodies that are produced in response to a specific antigen. Using information about how you completed this ELISA experiment, outline a procedure to test for antibodies in the blood.
Start by inserting PBS into the sample and mix it. Then add the primary antibody, let it sit, then wash the solution. Next, add the secondary antibody, let it sit, and wash the solution. Finally, mix the substrate with the sample.
Explain why in sudden outbreaks, it may be better to test for disease antigens rather than for antibodies.
If there is an unknown disease outbreak, it's very likely that no one will have the antibodies for it. Because there will be no antibodies, you cannot use an ELISA test.
Home pregnancy tests use ELISA technology. When a woman is pregnant, her body produces a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Explain how antibodies can be used to detect this hormone and are linked to the color change a woman may see on a positive test.
hCG can also work as an antigen, leaning antibodies can attach to it. When a woman is pregnant and producing hCG there will be a large amount of antibodies, which will cause a positive reading on the pregnancy test.
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