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EMT - CH33
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Terms in this set (54)
In which of the following ways does the body produce heat in response to being cold?
A) Excreting more urine
B) Burning fewer calories
D) Increasing the respiratory rate
In which of the following situations would a person lose heat by conduction?
A) Sitting on cold metal bleachers at a football game
B) Wearing wet clothing in windy weather
D) Going outside without a coat during a cold but calm day
When the body is in water, how many times faster does it lose heat than when it is in still air?
A patient who is lying on cold ground is losing the most amount of heat by what mechanism?
Which of the following is the process in which heat is lost from the body as wind passes over it?
B) Hydrodynamic cooling
Which of the following is the most significant way in which the body cools itself?
Why is it important to keep patients at rest when they are hypothermic?
A) Since the blood is warmest in the extremities, exercise or unnecessary movement could quickly circulate the warm blood and raises the core body temperature.
B) Since the blood is coldest in the extremities, exercise or unnecessary movement could quickly circulate the cold blood and drop the blood pressure.
C) Since the blood is coldest in the extremities, exercise or unnecessary movement could quickly circulate the cold blood and lower the core body temperature.
D) None of the above
Which of the following does NOT make infants and children more prone to hypothermia?
A) Inefficient metabolism
B) Large body surface area
C) Small muscle mass
D) Little body fat
Which of the following terms describes the temperature of the surrounding air?
A) Wind chill index
B) Shell temperature
C) Core temperature
D) Ambient temperature
In cases of extreme hypothermia, you will find the patient unconscious, with no discernible vital signs, and skin cold
to your touch with stiff joints as if they appear dead. What is the emergency care for these patients?
A) Contact medical control for input into the best treatment for this patient.
B) Call the coroner as indications are the patient is cold and deceased, which is a definitive sign of death.
C) Check distal CSM, apply warming packs to the extremities, and transport the patient.
D) Assess the carotid pulse for 30 to 45 seconds; if there is no pulse, start CPR immediately and prepare to apply the
To assess skin temperature for a possibly hypothermic patient, the EMT should place the back of his hand against
which part of the patient's body?
D) Inner wrist
Allowing a patient's body temperature to increase by preventing further heat loss is referred to as which of the
A) Core rewarming
B) Passive rewarming
C) Active rewarming
D) Natural rewarming
Applying an external source of heat to the patient's body to rewarm him is called ________ rewarming.
The technique for central rewarming requires the application of heat to which of the following areas of the patient's body?
A) Chest, back, neck, and armpits
B) Lateral chest, neck, armpits, and groin
C) Head, neck, chest, and back
D) Head, neck, chest, and groin
Which of the following is acceptable when actively rewarming a hypothermic patient?
A) Encouraging the patient to exercise
B) Giving coffee or brandy to drink
C) Warming the patient as quickly as possible
D) Applying humidified oxygen
In a hypothermic patient the coldest blood is found in what part of the patient's body?
B) Heart and lungs
You arrive on the scene and find an unresponsive homeless man lying in the alleyway clutching a wine bottle. He is
wearing a long-sleeved shirt, but does not have pants on. His skin feels cold to the touch. The week's temperatures have
not been above 50°F. Which of the following should you do immediately after ensuring the patient has an adequate
A) Apply the AED.
B) Provide manual stabilization of the cervical spine.
C) Begin passive rewarming.
D) Check the pulse.
Rough handling of a patient with severe hypothermia may result in which of the following?
A) Ventricular fibrillation
C) Heart attack
D) Rewarming shock
When resuscitating a hypothermic patient in cardiac arrest, resuscitation attempts must continue until the patient
A) been ventilated for at least 30 minutes with an oropharyngeal airway in place.
B) developed rigor mortis.
C) been defibrillated a total of nine times.
D) been rewarmed.
Which of the following is NOT a classification of localized cold injury?
D) All of the above are localized cold injuries.
The term gangrene means tissue:
Localized cold injury occurs due to vasoconstriction and:
A) chemical imbalance in the tissues.
B) blood clots.
C) ice crystal formation in the tissues.
D) loss of calcium.
Which of the following BEST describes a localized cold injury with a clear line of demarcation of its limits?
A) Early frostnip
B) Late frostbite
C) Immersion foot
D) Deep frostnip
The term blanching, used to describe localized cold injury, means the tissue has turned to which of the following
A) White or lighter
B) Blue or purple
Which of the following should the EMT do during the treatment of localized cold injury?
A) Encourage the patient to use the affected part.
B) Rub the affected area with snow.
C) Massage the affected area.
D) Gradually warm the affected area.
When actively rewarming a frostbitten extremity in warm water, you should change the water when the
temperature falls below ________ °F.
Which of the following describes the condition of having an abnormally high body temperature?
B) Septic shock
C) Hyperdynamic state
D) Heat shock
For which of the following reasons are newborns, infants, and the elderly more readily affected by the heat than
other age groups?
A) Faster metabolism
B) Increased body mass
C) Inadequate salt intake
D) Poor ability to regulate body temperature
Heat cramps occur due to loss of which of the following substances?
D) Water and potassium
Heat stroke is caused by which of the following mechanisms?
A) Blockage of blood flow to the brain
B) Extreme dilation of all the blood vessels
C) Failure of temperature regulation mechanisms
D) Heat-induced swelling of brain tissue
When submerged in water, biological death may be delayed if the water temperature is below ________ °F.
Regarding drowning in adults, which of the following statements is true?
A) Colder water improves survival chances in saltwater drowning but not in freshwater drowning.
B) Water temperature makes no difference in the chances of survival in either saltwater or freshwater drowning.
C) The colder the water, the better the chances of survival in either saltwater or freshwater drowning.
D) The warmer the water, the better the chances of survival in saltwater drowning.
Which of the following spiders can cause a characteristic wound with a bite that is often painless?
A) Brown recluse spider
B) Sheet web spider
C) Argiope spider
D) Black widow spider
Where should a constricting band be placed to reduce lymphatic flow after a venomous snake bite?
A) Two inches above the bite
B) Two inches below the bite
C) Two inches above and two inches below the bite
D) None of the above; constricting bands should not be used.
The purpose of a constricting band after a venomous snake bite is to impede the flow of which of the following?
B) Arterial blood
D) Both A and C
Of the following venomous snakes, which one usually has the highest incidence of a "dry bite"?
A) Coral snake
B) Water moccasin
C) Mississauga rattlesnake
Which of the following could worsen the effects of a snake bite?
A) Application of ice
B) Cutting and suctioning out the venom
C) Constricting bands above and below the bite
D) All of the above
Reducing the pain of a marine animal sting can be accomplished by rinsing the affected area with which of the
A) Sterile saline solution
B) Gasoline or kerosene
C) Cold water
Which of the following occurs when gases leave a damaged lung in a diving accident and enter the bloodstream?
A) Arterial thrombosis
B) Arterial blood gases
C) Hyperbaric arterial injury
D) Arterial gas embolism
Which of the following is caused by trapped nitrogen gas in the tissues due to a rapid ascent from a scuba dive?
A) "Squeeze" injuries of the ear and sinuses
B) Pulmonary embolism
C) Decompression sickness
D) Nitrogen narcosis
Which of the following increases a scuba diver's risk of decompression sickness?
A) Taking cold or sinus medications before a dive
B) Flying within several hours after a dive
C) Diving on a full stomach
D) Breathing 100 percent oxygen before a dive
You arrive on the scene to find a scuba diver on board a boat slumped over in the captain's chair with frothy blood in
h is mouth. The captain states that the diver was down no more than 15 feet when he ascended rapidly and called for
help. Which of the following is most likely?
A) Decompression sickness
B) The bends
C) Air embolism
D) Caisson's disease
Which of the following types of snake is NOT a pit viper?
A) Water moccasin
C) Coral snake
You are enjoying some time at the beach on your day off when you hear a swimmer crying for help. As you spot the swimmer about 30 feet from shore, she cries out again but appears to be getting weaker. Although there is no lifeguard on duty, there is a rowboat and a ring buoy available. Assuming you do NOT know how to swim or consider yourself a
poor swimmer, which of the following should you do first?
A) Row the boat out to the swimmer.
B) Use the buoy to float out to the swimmer.
C) Find someone who can swim to try to swim out and save the swimmer.
D) Call for help and try to throw the buoy to the swimmer.
To rescue someone who has fallen through the ice, which of the following is the safest device to use?
A) A jet-ski
B) A flat-bottomed aluminum boat
C) A ladder
D) A ring buoy
Most radiant heat is lost through which part of the body?
A) The hands and feet
B) The head
C) The buttocks
D) The torso
Which of the following signs would you NOT expect to see in a patient suffering from severe hypothermia?
D) Skin cool to touch
Why is it important to remove constricting items such as rings before thawing a frozen extremity?
A) Because thawed areas often swell
B) To prevent damage to the property such as rings and watches
C) Because thawing leaves clots behind in the veins
D) All of the above
Which of the following would you expect to see in a patient with severe hypothermia?
A) Irrational behavior
B) Loss of muscle tone
C) Rapid respirations
In a patient with extreme hypothermia who appears to be in cardiac arrest, you should assess the pulse for how
A) 30 to 45 seconds
B) 20 to 30 seconds
C) 5 to 10 seconds
D) 15 to 20 seconds
Your patient is a 24-year-old man who smoked a cigarette dipped in formaldehyde and then went outside with no shoes on and walked in the snow for about an hour. He has deep local cold injuries to both feet. Which of the following should be included in your management of this patient?
A) Break blisters before wrapping both feet in sterile dressings.
B) Have the patient sit with his feet lower than the rest of his body.
C) Gradually rewarm both feet.
D) Massage the feet briskly.
Your patient is a 44-year-old female with a history of alcoholism. She has been walking around at an outdoor fair on a hot, sunny day. She is disoriented to time; has hot, dry skin; and appears to be generally weak. Which of the following is the appropriate sequence of treatment for this patient?
A) Have the patient drink an electrolyte solution or sports drink and apply cold packs to her neck, armpits, and groin.
B) Get as much ice as possible from the food vendors at the fair, place the patient in a large container of ice, and apply
oxygen by nonrebreather mask.
C) Give oxygen by nonrebreather mask, have the patient sip a sports drink or electrolyte solution, remove heavy
clothing, and place cold packs on her neck, armpits, and groin.
D) Give oxygen by nonrebreather mask, remove heavy clothing, and place cold packs on her neck, armpits, and groin.
Which of the following is often associated with water-related emergencies?
B) Cardiac arrest
C) Alcohol use
D) All of the above
Which of the following is acceptable in the management of a patient stung by a honey bee?
A) Soak the affected area in warm water.
B) Pull the stinger out using tweezers.
C) Remove jewelry from any affected limbs.
D) Elevate the affected site above the level of the heart to reduce swelling.
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