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Health and Physical Assessment (Adult)
Terms in this set (10)
A spanish-speaking client arrives at the triage desk in the emergency department and states to the nurse, "No speak English, need interpreter." Which is the best action for the nurse to take?
A. Have one of the client's family members interpret.
B. Have the Spanish-speaking triage receptionist interpret.
C. Page an interpreter from the hospital's interpreter services.
D. Obtain a Spanish-English dictionary and attempt to triage the client.
The best action is to have a professional hospital-based interpreter translate for the client. English-speaking family members may not appropriately understand what is asked of them and may paraphrase what the client is actually saying. Also, client confidentiality as well as accurate information may be compromised when a family member or a non-health care provider acts as interpreter.
The nurse is performing a neurological assessment on a client and elicits a positive Romberg's sign. The nurse makes this determination based on which observation?
A. An involuntary rhythmic, rapid, twitching of the eyeballs.
B. A dorsiflexion of the ankle and great toe with fanning of the other toes.
C. A significant sway when the client stands erect with feet together, arms at the side, and the eyes closed.
D. A lack of normal sense of position when the client is unable to return extended fingers to a point of reference.
In Romberg's test, the client is asked to stand with the feet together and the arms at the sides, and to close the eyes and hold the position; normally the client can maintain posture and balance. A positive Romberg's sign is a vestibular neurological sign that is found when a client exhibits a loss of balance when closing the eyes. This may occur with cerebellar ataxia, loss of proprioception, and loss of vestibular function. A lack of normal sense of position coupled with an inability to return extended fingers to a point of reference is a finding that indicates a problem with coordination. A positive gaze nystagmus evaluation results in a involuntary rhythmic, rapid, twitching of the eyeballs. A positive Babinski's test results in dorsiflexion of the ankle and great toe with fanning of the other toes; if this occurs in anyone older than 2 years it indicates the presence of central nervous system disease.
The nurse notes documentation that a client is exhibiting Cheyne-Strokes respirations. On assessment of the client, the nurse should expect to not which finding?
A. Rhythmic respirations with periods of apnea
B. Regular rapid and deep, sustained respirations
C. Totally irregular repression in rhythm and depth
D. Irregular respirations with pauses at the end of inspiration and expiration
Cheyne-Stokes respirations are rhythmic respirations with periods of apnea and can indicate a metabolic dysfunction in the cerebral hemisphere or basal ganglia. Neurogenic hyperventilation is a regular, rapid and deep, sustained respiration that can indicate a dysfunction in the low midbrain and middle pons. Ataxic respirations are totally irregular in rhythm and depth and indicate a dysfunction in the medulla. Apneustic respirations are irregular reparations with pauses at the end of inspiration and expiration and can indicate a dysfunction in the middle or caudal pons.
The nurse notes documentation that a client has conductive hearing loss. The nurse understands that this type of hearing loss is caused by which problem?
A. A defect in the cochlea
B. A defect in the 8th cranial nerve
C. A physical obstruction to the transmission of sound waves.
D. A defect in the sensory fibers that lead to the cerebral cortex
A conductive hearing loss occurs as a result of a physical obstruction to the transmission of sound waves. A sensorineural hearing loss occurs as a result of a pathological process in the inner ear, a defect in the 8th cranial nerve, or a defect of the sensory fibers that lead to the cerebral cortex.
While performing a cardiac assessment on a client with an incompetent heart valve, the nurse auscultates a murmur. Which describes and sound of a heart murmur?
A. Lub-dub sounds
B. Scratchy, leathery heart noise
C. Gentle blowing or swooshing noise
D. Abrupt, high-pitched snapping noise
A heart murmur is an abnormal heart sound and is described as a gentle. blowing, swooshing sound. Lub-dub sounds are normal and represent the S1 (first) heart sound and S2 (second) heart sound, respectively.
The nurse is testing the extra ocular movements in a client to assess for muscle weakness in the eyes. The nurse should implement which assessment technique to assess for muscle weakness in the eye?
A. Tests the corneal reflexes
B. Tests the six cardinal positions of gaze
C. Tests visual acuity, using a Snellen eye chart
D. Tests sensory function by asking the client to close eyes and then lightly touching the forehead, cheeks, and chin.
Testing the six cardinal position of gee is done to assess for muscle weakness in the eyes. The client is asked to hold the head steady, and then to follow movement of an object through the positions of gaze.
The nurse is instructing a client how to perform a testicular self-examination (TSE). The nurse should explain that which is the best time to perform this exam?
A. After a shower or bath
B. while standing to void
C. After having a bowel movement
D. While lying in bed before arising
The nurse needs to teach the client how to perform a testicular self-examination (TSE). The nurse should instruct the client that the best time to perform a TSE is after a shower or bath when the hands are warm and soapy and the scrotum is warm.
The nurse is assessing a client for meningeal irritation and elicits a positive Brudzinski's sign. Which findings did the nurse observe?
A. The client rigidly extends the arms with pronated forearms and plantar flexion of the feet
B. The client flexes a leg at the hip and knee and reports pain in the vertebral column when the leg is extended
C. The client passively flexes the hip and knee in response to neck flexion and reports pain in the vertebral column.
D. The client's upper arms are flexed and held tightly to the sides of the body and the legs are extended and internally rotated.
Brudzinski's sign is tested with the client in the supine position. The nurse flexes the client's head (gently moves the head to the chest) and there should be no reports of pain or resistance to the neck flexion.
A client with a diagnosis of asthma is admitted to the hospital with reporter distress. Which type of adventitious lung sounds should the nurse expect to hear when performing a respiratory assessment on the client?
Asthma is a respiratory disorder characterized by recurring episodes of dyspnea, constriction of the bronchi, and wheezing.
The clinic nurse prepares to perform a focussed assessment on a client who is complaining of symptoms of a cold, a cough, and lung congestion. Which should the nurse include for this type of assessment? Select all that apply.
A. Auscultating lung sounds
B. Obtaining the client's temperature
C. Assessing the strength of peripheral pulses
D. Obtaining information about the client's respirations
E. Performing a musculoskeletal and neurological examination
F. Asking the client about a family history of any illness or disease.
Answer: A,B, D
A focused assessment focuses on a limited or short-term problem, such as the client's complaint. Because the client is complaining of symptoms of a cold, a cough, and lung congestion, the nurse would focus on the respiratory system and the presence of an infection. A complete assessment includes a complete health history and physical examination and forms a baseline database. Assessing the strength of peripheral pulses relates to a vascular assessment, which is not related to this client's complaints. A musculoskeletal and neurological examination also is not related to this client's complaints. However, strength of peripheral pulses and a musculoskeletal and neurological examination would be included in a complete assessment. Likewise, asking the client about a family history of any illness or disease would be included in a complete assessment.
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