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Addictions Exam II
Terms in this set (148)
The alkaloid, cocaine hydrochloride, is__ times more powerful by weight than the coca leaf.
snorting cocaine gets the drug into the brain within ____ minutes
When snorted, the blood level of cocaine is much ____than when used intravenously. As the _____ effect of cocaine wears off the nasal tissues swell causing a runny sniffling nose characteristic of cocaine snorters
when cocaine is absorbed through the lungs it reaches the brain within ___
when cocaine is injected in the veins how long does it take to reach the brain?
cocaine is associated with what type of behavior?
aggression and violence because it suppresses inhibitions and over activates the fight center
compare freebase cocaine to powdered cocaine
it has a lower melting point than the powdered form so it won't destroy most of the psychoactive properties of the drug when vaporized
____ and ___ are just difference chemical forms of cocaine that make it smokeable
freebase and crack
amphetamines were once used to treat
narcolepsy, epilepsy and depression
the controlled substance act of 1970 classified amphetamines as a schedule ___ drug
in the 1990's a highly potent and smokeable form of methamphetamine called ____ had taken center stage
dextro isomer methamphetamine
nicotine does what to appetite and metabolism?
suppresses appetite and increases metabolism
why do people continue to smoke?
negative drug reinforcement:
they desire to maintain a certain nicotine level to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
why are opiates and opioid drugs effective?
they act like the body's naturally occurring (endogenous) painkillers (endorphins and enkephalins)
What is the difference in withdrawal symptoms for short acting opioids and long acting opioids?
short acting opioids (heroine, morphine, dilaudid) result in acute withdrawal symptoms that begin within 8-12 hrs, reach peak intensity within 48 hrs, and then subside over a period of 5-7 days. long acting opioids (methadone) will delay withdrawal symptoms from 36-72 hours, reach a peak intensity in 4-6 days, and persist for 14+ days
a heroin overdose can be counteracting by___
naloxone (brand name narcan)
what is a speedball?
a common polycrug combination of cocaine or amphetamine with heroin
opioid and other downer combinations increase the potential for
respiratory depression, lethargy, overdose, and even death
what are benzodiazepines are medically used to treat...
anxiety, panic disorders, sleep problems, to control muscular spasms, seizures, and alcohol withdrawal symptoms
the majority of people in most countries drink alcohol expect for where?
stats of US drinkers
129 million had a drink in the past month. 16 million considered heavy drinkers
How is alcohol metabolized?
90-98% of alcohol is neutralized thru metabolism (mainly oxidation) by the liver and then excretion thru the kidneys and the lungs
How do you cure a hangover?
sufficient recovery time and rest
coffee, exercise and a cold shower can help cure a hangover. true or false?
in the united states what are 2 major effects of alcoholism
hepatitis (10-35% of heavy drinkers)
alcoholic hepatitis causes...
inflammation of the liver, areas of fibrosis, necrosis (cell death), and damaged membranes
what is cirrhosis of the liver?
when alcohol kills many liver cells and causes scarring
compare rates of cirrhosis in the Us and France and Germany
France and Germany are heavy drinking countries and have cirrhosis rates 2-3 times higher than the US
what is fatty liver?
the accumulation of fatty acids in the liver. can being to occur just a few days after heavy drinking
What is gastritis?
stomach inflammation, ulcers are common, also inflammation of the esophagus
What is pancreatitis?
inflammation of the pancreas
alcoholics may suffer from primary malnutrition. true or false?
too little sugar in the blood in drinkers who are malnourished.
If a drinker is sufficiently nourished, alcohol can cause _____
hyperglycemia, too much sugar in the blood
chronic heavy drinking is related to a variety of heart diseases including...
hypertension (high blood pressure) and cardiac arrythmias
______ an enlarged, flabby, and inefficient heart is often found in chronic heavy drinkers
heavy drinking can increase the risk of _____ within 24 hrs of a drinking binge
alcohol limits the brain ability to use ____ and ____ thus killing brain cells
glucose and oxygen
chronic high dose use of alcohol causes direct damage to ____ ____
prolonged heavy drinking can cause ____ (deterioration of intellectual ability, faulty memory, etc.)
_____ and _____ are caused by chronic alcoholism and thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency
wernicke's encephalopathy and korsakoff's psychosis
How does drinking affect women's sex drive?
light drinking lowers inhibitions, prolonged use decreases sexual desire and the intensity of orgasm.
how does drinking affect men's sex drive?
long term abuse cases a decrease in testosterone levels
In women, there is an association between _____ and heavy drinking
There is a greater risk of cancer of the ____, _____, and ____ in heavy alcohol users
6 times greater
cancer of the mouth, throat, and larynx
increases to 38X for those who smoke too
alcohol leeches minerals from the body causing a much greater risk of _____
fractures of the femur, wrist, vertebrae, and ribs
the reddish complexion of chronic alcoholics is caused by...
acne rosacea, psoriasis, eczema, and facial edema.
heavy drinking may disrupt white blood cells and in other ways weaken the ____ ____
alcohol and ____ problems go hand in hand
why does alcohol increase aggression?
it interferes with GABA (the main inhibitory NT) in ways that provoke intoxicated people with preexisting tendencies
diverse cultural traditions make a major contribution to alcohol use and abuse patterns among ethnic groups, true or false?
alcoholism is higher in blacks, hispanics or whites?
peak for drinking occurs when for blacks?
after the age of 30
peak for drinking occurs when for whites?
before the age of 30
true or false: blacks have more medical problems brought on by heavy drinking than whites
what is the main issue with alcohol abuse and addiction in hispanic communities?
lack of culturally relevant treatment centers and personnel
what is an import part of treatment in a hispanic person?
the family is necessary, plus an appreciation of the values of dignity, respect, and love (dignidad, respeto, y carino)
what ethnicity/race has the lowest rate of drinking and drug problems in the US?
asian and pacific islanders
what can be said about drinking patterns in native american and native alaskan tribes in the US?
they vary widely because some are abstinent, some drink moderately, and some have very high rates of drinking
the abuse of alcohol accounts for __ of the 10 leading causes of death in most native american tribes
which is an intermediate product of alcohol metabolism?
the reason that initially alcohol seems like a stimuli
it releases norepinephrine
LSD effects occur ____ after ingestion and last ____
withdrawal from LSD is more ____ and ____ than physical
emotion and mental
Why does LSD cause sensory distortions?
it mentally overloads the brainstem
what is the sensory switchboard of the brain?
seeing sounds or hearing colors
mushrooms vary greatly in...
strength- a potent mushroom might have as much psilocybin as 10 weak ones
what is the chemical in mushrooms that causes effects?
the chemical structure of of psilocybin is similar to that of
peyote, MDMA, and other phenylalkyamine...the class of psychedelics is chemically related to _____ and ____
adrenaline and amphetamine
phenylalkyamines take _____ to reach their peak, much longer than indole psychedelics like LSD
peyote is used by the _____ church of north america as part of the ceremonies
the effects of mescaline last approx. ____ and are very similar to ____
MDMA (ecstacy) is _____ than MDA
4-6 hrs vs 10-12 hrs
What are the different methods of administering MDMA?
snorted, injected, or swallowed
what form is MDMA usually sold
capsule, tablet, or powder
MDMA was banned as a schedule I drug in ____
1988 in the US, thus ending its use as a therapy aid
tolerance to MDMA's ____ develops rapidly
because MDMA user develops mental tolerance quickly it is likely
they will take more - more chance of physical harm
MDMA health risks
rapid and potentially dangerous heart rhythm problems, seizure activity, stroke, cardiovascular failure, and coma.
Grinding and clenching of the teeth
high blood temperature
malignant hyperthermia can cause _____
rhabdomyolysis - muscle damage
true or false: MDMA can cause renal failure
true or false: MDMA can cause coagulation of the blood
It can take up to a ____ or more to produce a sufficient amount of seratonin to reexperience normal feelings
due to excessive stimulation, what happens to seratonin?
seratonin receptors retreat into the cell membrane to avoid damage,a process called down regulation, leading to more long lasting mood changes
Phenomenon in which there is a decrease in the number of receptors in response to an excess of a hormone or neurotransmitter.
following an ecstasy experience, users have also been known to ___
become extremely depressed and suicidal
PCP is also known as
PCP was originally used as a ____ but it now ____
dissociative general anesthetic but is now illegal
salvia divinorum is also known as
sage or diviners sage
salvia divinorum is a ____ plant whose effects have been likened to ___
salvia divinorum is administered by ____ or ___
salvia divinorum causes
dreamlike hallucinations, occasional delirium, and out of body sensations
____ is thought to be the key psychoactive extract in salvia divinorum
salvia divinorum is illegal, true or false?
false, it is legal and considered to be an herb
nonprescription opiod cough suppressant available in over 140 cough medications such as robitussin
an excess dose of dextromethorphan causes
euphoria, dissociation of the mind and body, hallucinations, and a loss of coordination
a very high dose of dextromethorphan is similar to
LSD or magic mushrooms
the effects of high dose nutmeg and mace include
mild floating sensation to full blown delirium
since nutmeg causes ___ it is rarely used outside of ____
nauseating and toxic effects
a growing technique that increases potency of plant
when the sticky resin is pressed into cakes
true or false: the resin contains barely any psychoactive ingredients
false, it contains most of them
the most potent psychoactive chemical found in marijuana is
high concentration THC marijuana has been around for many years but
was not readily available
receptor sites in the brain that specifically respond to the THC in marijuana were not discovered until
the neurotransmitter most like THC was found in 1992 and named
why is it difficult to overdose on marijuana?
there are few anandamide receptors in the brain stem (where autonomic body functions are controlled)
the immediate physical effects of marijuana include
physical relaxation, pain control, bloodshot eyes, coughing, increase in appetite, and a loss in muscular coordination
marijuana causes what in the eye
impairment of tracking ability and a trailing phenomenon where you see an afterimage of a moving object
marijuana produces a feeling of ___ where everything seems familiar but really isnt
additional effects include
aloof feeling, drowsiness, difficulty concentrating
marijuana smoking on a regular basis leads to symptoms of increased coughing with
acute and chronic bronchitis
some evidence suggests that heavy use of marijuana can depress the ____
marijuana use slows ____ and disrupts ____ to do its influence on ____
learning, concentration, short term memory
what does the "mirror that magnifies" mean
marijuana exaggerates natural tendencies in the user
THC is retained in the ___ of the brain
withdrawal effects include:
anger, irritability, aggression, aches, pains, chills, depression, inability to concentrate, slight tremors, sleep disturbances, decreased appetite, and craving
true or false: everyone experiences all of the withdrawal effects of marijuana
false, but everyone will experience some of them, especially craving
true or false: inhalants have been used for thousands of years
true! use has expanded dramatically in the last 200 years
inhalants are different from other psychoactive drugs in that they are
quick acting and have intense effects
inhalants have more ____than most other psychoactive drugs
direct effects on body tissues
inhaling these substances produces ...
a temporyary stimulation, mood elevation, and reduced inhibitions
external signs of solvent abuse include:
headaches, chemical odor on the body and clothes, ready glassy watery eyes, dilated pupils, inflamed nose, slow thick or slurred speech, staggering gait, and disorientation
why is nitrous oxide (N20) used at parties?
it has a dramatic rapid onset and equally rapid dissolution of effects
what is the maximum effect of anesthetic inhalants?
2-3 min but experienced users seem to feel effects longer than novice users
long term exposure to N20 inhalants can cause
central and peripheral nerve cell and brain damage due to lack of sufficient oxygen
N20 is not classified as a controlled substance, true or false?
true, but possession with intent to use for recreational purposes is a misdemeanor in most states\
the liability to physical and psychological dependence and addiction to inhalants is (less or more) than for other depressants
there are 3 main categories of drugs used in sports:
theraputic, performance enhancing, and recreational or mood altering
performance enhancing drugs were not used until the 1970's. true or false
false, in the 1800s cyclists, swimmers, and other athletes used opium, caffeine, nitroglycerin, sugar cubes soaked in cocaine, and even low doses of strychnine to improve performance
why do most people use AASs
to enhance personal appearance
as steroid use continues, emotional balance starts to swing from
confidence to agressiveness, to emotional instability, to rage, and back to depression or psychosis
a nutritional supplement created naturally in the body and also found in fish and meat
delays muscle fatigue, stores energy for short bursts, extends workout time and helps muscles recover faster
is creatine banned? where can you buy it?
you can buy it over the counter, it is not yet banned by any sports agency
true or false: addictive behaviors alter brain chemistry the same way as psychoactive drugs do
what do alcoholism and other addictive compulsive behaviors have in common?
studies indicate that a marker gene associated with alcoholism also has a strong association ith several addictive compulsive behaviors
the release of extra ___ caused by compulsive behaviors overstimulates the reward/reinforcement pathway
the problems that result from pathological and problem gambling is (as severe, not as severe) as drug based addiction
explain the cycle of gambling
a losing streak is inevitable due to the laws of chance. compulsive gamblers try to recoup their losses and they begin chasing their money. even when losing, gamblers still rely on gambling for their emotional satisfaction
bulimia without vomiting, laxatives or other compensatory activities
some people experience a stimulant like rush when online and others speak of being tranquilized by their quiet isolation
when do problems with online relationships occur?
when they draw the net surfer away from their real life relationships
As useful as seeing the similarities between substance abuse and behavioral addictions can be, there is danger in generalizing the concept of addiction thereby obscuring the distinctive characteristics of a specific addiction.
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