Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Exam 1 Forensic Psychology
Terms in this set (138)
Define "forensic" and how that word is applied to psychology?
The application of psychological methods and techniques to the investigation of crime.
How does the American Psychological Association (APA) define forensic psychology?
Forensic psychology refers to professional practice by any psychologist working within any sub-discipline of psychology (e.g., clinical, developmental, social, cognitive) when applying the scientific, technical, or specialized knowledge of psychology to the law to assist in addressing legal, contractual, and administrative matters.
What is the intersection of forensic psychologists and the police?
Human factors engineering
What is courtroom psychology?
Child custody decisions
What is the intersection between forensic psychology and crime?
Research on interventions
What is the intersection between forensic psychology and victimology?
Evaluate victims and witnesses
Conduct psychological assessments for legal cases.
Educate victim service providers on psychological reactions to criminal victimization.
Conduct forensic assessments of victims of persecution and torture for evidence at immigration hearings.
Assess, support, and counsel those who provide death notification services.
Educate service providers on the impact of multiculturalism when victims seek mental health and support services.
What is the intersection of corrections and forensic psychology?
Assess inmates for mental health needs and suitability for treatment.
Assess prisoners for risk in parole decision making.
Assess violence risk in juveniles and adults.
Evaluate the effectiveness of victim-offender reconciliation programs, sex offender treatment, violence prevention, or health education programs.
Conduct sexually violent predator assessments.
Establish screening procedures for correctional officer positions at correctional facilities.
Offer mental health treatment to ppl in correctional settings.
What are the ethical issues of forensic psychology?
What are contentious issues in forensic psychology?
Psychologists participating in military interrogations
Making recommendations in child custody cases Conducting violence risk assessments in death penalty cases
Labeling juveniles as psychopathic
Establishing proper boundaries between assessment and treatment.
What is the role of a clinical forensic psychology?
80 graduate programs across the globe.
No formalized "standard" training.
Joint degree training (Psychology degree + Law degree).
Clinical psychology with emphasis on forensics.
What are research areas for a forensic psychologist?
Family forensic psychology
Crime and delinquency
Victim and victim services
What is investigative psychology?
Psychologist working within the legal system
Can include development of assessments, anti-racism interventions, counseling of officers, fitness for duty, "profiling"
What is legal psychology?
Mostly how psychology can explain behavior in the courtroom setting.
Decisions of judges and juries
What is a family forensic psychologist?
Child custody, parent-child reunification, sentencing impact
What is crime and delinquency research?
"Development of criminals" and intervention programs
What is victims and victim services research?
Battered partner behavior
What is correctional psychology?
Subtly but importantly different from forensic psychology
Working with incarcerated persons, parolees, families
Assessments, crisis intervention, addiction services, etc.
Working with juvenile and/or adults
More clinically oriented, but with a focus on those who are impacted by the legal system.
How is the police psychologist like an embedded journalist?
Police psychologists work within the police force
What is cultural competency in police psychology?
Police psychologists must understand police culture and barriers to treatment of police officers (the "blue wall")
What is the culture of policing?
The blue wall, very different in-group and out-group behaviors
What is a psychological evaluation of fitness?
Preemployment psychological screening occurs
when psychologists evaluate a person's psychological suitability for police work prior to
What is a fitness for duty evaluation?
In fitness-for-duty evaluations (FFDEs), psychologists evaluate an employed police officer's ability to perform
the job. This often occurs after the officer has been through a personally stressful experience, either in his or her personal life or on the job (e.g., sudden death of a spouse, being taken hostage, or involvement in a shooting incident).
What are barriers to accurate fitness for duty evaluation?
Police officers may not disclose information.
What is reliability and validity?
Reliability: produces same results every time; consistent, stable scores
Validity: truth and authenticity; should measure what its supposed to measure
- Good tests should be both reliable and valid
What is the main personality assessment used in law enforcement?
MMPI-2. Has numerous scales to measure different personality traits.
Why is policing stressful?
PTSD & Depression: 5x greater. Organizational and task-related stressors
What are organizational stressors for the police?
Shift work, poor training, excessive paperwork, etc
What are task-related stressors?
Boredom, fear, repeated traumatic exposure, etc.
Emotional Labor - keeping calm when those around you are emotional
What is role confusion in the police?
One person is expected to be police, social worker, counselor, etc.
Which critical incidents contribute to PTSD?
Police aren't able to exercise fight or flight. First criterion is exposure to potentially deadly or damaging situation such as physical or sexual assault, accident, OR...chronic exposure by witnessing the event or aftereffects of the event
PTSD is most common after...
Killing someone in the line of duty
Death of a fellow officer
What factors contribute to who will develop PTSD?
Unknown. Rates of PTSD are 7-19% after a critical incident
Newer theories are focusing on resilience
Resilience: Positive outcome despite adversity
What are examples of external stressors encountered by police?
Ongoing frustration with law process
Law enforcement approaches to immigration
What are examples of internal stressors?
Peer group pressures
Feelings of helplessness and depression
Lack of accomplishment.
Where does spousal stress come from?
Shift work and overtime
An officer's cynicism, need to feel in control at home, or inability or unwillingness to express feelings
The fear that the officer will be hurt or killed
The officer's and other people's excessively high expectations of their children
Avoidance, teasing, or harassment of children because of their parent's job
The presence of a gun in the home.
What are factors in police suicides?
72% of police who commit suicide are alcoholics
Psychological reactions to critical incidents, relationship difficulties, internal investigations, financial difficulties, frustration and discouragement, and easy access to weapons.
Difficulties in marital or intimate partner relationships, followed by legal problems and internal investigations.
What are suicide mitigation efforts?
Police psychologists have worked on improving the sophisticated screening procedures and rigorous evaluations at the time of hiring.
Increased use of stress awareness training, better police training, increased counseling opportunities
What is a hostage situation?
Characterized by a person (or persons) holding victims against their will who are used to obtain material gain, deliver a sociopolitical message, or achieve personal advantage
What is a barricade situation?
An individual has fortified or barricaded himself or herself in a residence or public building or structure and threatens violence either to the self or to others.
May or may not include the taking of hostages
What is the role of police psychologists in hostage situations?
83% of situations are resolved without serious injury/death
Police agencies that used a psychologist reported more hostage incidents ending by negotiated surrender and fewer incidents resulting in the serious injury or death of a hostage.
Who is most likely to be a hostage taker? Why?
Political activists or terrorists
Looking for publicity, eroding confidence in a government, negotiation for incarcerated group members
Individuals who have committed a crime
Trying to escape
Individuals with mental health disorders
50% of hostage-takers have a mental health disorder
What are the 3 phases of hostage negotiation?
1. Pre-incident duties
2. Intra-incident duties
3. Post-incident duties
What are pre-incident duties?
Provide psychological screening and selection of negotiators
Deliver training to negotiators on the psychological aspects that are pertinent to crisis negotiations, such as active listening and persuasion techniques
Suggest strategies for a quick threat and violence risk assessment
What are intra-incident duties?
Monitor negotiations, offer advice on the emotional state and behavior of the individual in crisis, and assist negotiators in influencing the person's behaviors and intentions
What are post-incident duties?
Provide stress management strategies, debriefing, and counseling services to the crisis management team.
What does it take to become a crisis negotiator?
Multilayer training in the field and in the classroom
What is the narrow definition of a forensic psychologist?
Clinical psychologists who are
engaged in clinical practice within the legal system
What is the broad definition of a forensic psychologist?
Forensic psychology refers to professional practice by any psychologist working within any sub-discipline of psychology (e.g., clinical, developmental, social,
cognitive) when applying the scientific, technical, or specialized knowledge of psychology to the law to assist in addressing legal, contractual, and administrative matters.
Do jurors believe eyewitness testimony?
Eyewitness testimony is the most compelling evidence in court and is most persuasive to the jury
What is the leading contributing cause for wrongful convictions?
Eyewitness misidentification is the leading cause in wrongful convictions
How does the legal system try to expose bias in eyewitnesses?
The legal system attempts to expose bias by:
- Determining witness ability to observe
- Voir dire
- Jury deliberation
What are the Manson Criteria for evaluation of eyewitness testimony?
The Manson Criteria are:
- Opportunity to view perpetrator
- Level of attention
- Degree of certainty about perpetrator
Which of the Manson Criteria are dependent on evaluation by the witness?
All of them, but especially the last two
What factors may result in a biased identification by a witness?
Suggestive questioning and identification procedures can cause a mistaken identification and could also inflate a witness's estimates of his or her own standing on Manson criteria
Why can it be difficult to apply the Manson criteria?
Jurors place undue faith in the reliability of eyewitnesses
- Too much weight on eyewitness confidence
- Not very skilled at distinguishing between accurate and inaccurate eyewitnesses
What is own-race bias? (ORB)
People are much better at discriminating between
faces of their own race or ethnic group than faces of other races or ethnic groups
- More false positive IDs
- Frequency of meaningful and positive contacts with other races develops skill to differentiate among faces
What are some of the factors that affect accuracy in identifications?
- Own-race bias (ORB)/cross-racial identifications
- Memory processes
What are stress effects?
Witnesses focus on weapons rather than faces
- High stress situations = more false IDs
What are memory effects?
- Preexisting expectations
- Leading or suggestive comments
What is unconscious transference?
Face seen in one context transferred to another
What are preexisting expectations?
Interaction of beliefs about sequence of actions in a case (scripts) with prior knowledge
What are leading or suggestive comments?
- Eyewitness recall shaped by wording of questions
- Inhibition of details through retrieval inhibition
Does the confidence of the witness sway jurors or judges? How?
A confident eyewitness persuades jurors/judge
- Highly correlated with persuasiveness -Increases over time
-Weakly correlated with accuracy;
- witness investment in identification correctness increases over time
What is confidence manipulation?
Post-identification feedback effect strengthened through cognitive dissonance
What factors may improve the reliability of eyewitness testimony?
- Blind lineup
- Bias-reducing instructions
- Unbiased lineup
- Confidence ratings
- Video recording
- Expert testimony
How does a blind lineup improve reliability?
Reduces unintentional communication; blind lineup administrator
How do bias-reducing instructions improve reliability?
Forces witnesses to rely on own memory
How does an unbiased lineup improve reliability?
Requires actual suspect should not stand out from "fillers"
How does expert testimony improve reliability?
Provides psychologist summary on research related to eyewitness testimony
Are there any methods that may help eyewitnesses remember more accurately? Any evidence for these methods?
- Cognitive Interview (CI)
Is there evidence for hypnosis?
- Involves relaxed state, more receptive to suggestion• May facilitate hypnotic hypermnesia•
- Does not increase accuracy; courts skeptical
What is the Cognitive Interview (CI)?
- Involves procedure to relax witness, provide multiple opportunities to report, and avoid coercive or leading questions
- Reinstates context surrounding crime
- Is difficult for police to adopt this method
Are people good at detecting with others are lying? What are the statistics? Make sure you know the different demographics of the groups studied, and who is or isn't better than chance.
Lie detection accuracy is nearly equal to chance
- Detection is poor even among those with training
- Flawed interpretation of verbal and non-verbal behavior often fuels confirmation bias
Are some people better at detecting lies than others?
- College students slightly better at distinguishing true from false confessions; police detectives were not
Why might it be beneficial to society to NOT be able to tell when someone is lying?
What is the major difference between police officers vs. college students in lie detection (hint: it's not in the ability to detect lies)
Detectives were more confident in their judgments of lies
What does a polygraph machine measure?
Why do the polygraph measurements detect lies?
What are the three different methods of questioning used in polygraphy?
- Relevant-irrelevant (RIT)
- Control question test (CQT)
- Positive-control test (PCT)
What is relevant-irrelevant questioning? (RIT)
- Ask an irrelevant and then a relevant question
- Interested in the difference between relevant and irrelevant questions
- If you're guilty the difference between an irrelevant lie and relevant lie should be evident
What is a control question test? (CQT)
- Ask a question that everyone would lie about, then a relevant question
- Interested in the discomfort difference between control question and relevant question
What is a positive-comparison test?
- Person is asked the same question twice
- Lie once, tell the truth once
- More arousal is the truth
What are the weaknesses of the polygraph method of lie detection?
- Differential reaction of person being tested (e.g., emotionally non-responsive; innocent)
- Doubt about polygraph validity
- Rejection on purely ethical grounds
- Lack of standardization
- Suspect self-stimulation strategies
- Use of countermeasures
What methods have been used to study the efficacy of the polygraph?
Laboratory and field studies with mock juries and crime and actual suspects
What are the disadvantages of laboratory study of the polygraph?
- Low consequence for lying
- Limited or no subject experience or training in countermeasures
- Lies told in controlled studies tend to be simpler than those told about real crimes
How might increasing cognitive load be a new method for lie detection?
Lying is more cognitively demanding than telling the truth
- Limited cognitive capacity to manage extra demands of fabricating and managing a lie and suppressing the truth
Increasing cognitive demand to catch suspect in lie
What is the Guilty Knowledge Test? How is it different from standard polygraphy, and why might this be an effective method for lie detection?
Places information from crime among random info
- Makes use of polygraph equipment but does not attempt to detect lies
- Infers guilty person will recognize crime information that innocent person does not; elevated physiological arousal occurs
What are the problems associated with the GKT?
- Sufficient number of crime facts must be available
- Facts must not be widely publicized
- Details must be recalled by the guilty person
- Applicability to large number of crimes may not occur
- Resistance of professional polygraphers may occur
Explain how analysis of language might be a tool for lie detection?
What is the Facial Action Coding System?
The Facial Action Coding System identifies 43 sets of muscles, which often work in tandem to facially express emotion
If there are so many problems with the polygraph why is it still admissible in court? Be sure to include the 1993 Daubert vs. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals ruling.
- Polygraph results admissible in court in many states
- 1993 Supreme Court decision (Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals)
- Admissibility of scientific evidence determined case-by-case based on evidentiary hearings
What is the racial distribution in police departments? Does this represent a change in the past several decades?
Not solely white males any more, but this is still the predominant demographic.
Increase in Black and Hispanic officers (2016)
Are women represented on police forces?
Women are a small minority on the police force
What are the biases against female police officers? Are these biases warranted? Why or why not?
Policing requires physical strength, but that also seems to promote use of force.
What are the advantages of female police officers?
Generally have better communication and social skills than their male colleagues
Better able to facilitate the cooperation and trust for a community policing model
Could be an effective way of addressing the problems of excessive force and citizen complaints and also of improving community policing in general.
It may reduce the problem of sex discrimination and sexual harassment by changing the climate of the agency.
What is implicit bias? Are you likely to have an implicit bias? Why or why not?
When we have attitudes towards people or associate stereotypes with them without our conscious knowledge
What is a shooter bias?
Shooter bias is the effect of racial stereotypes on police officer's decision to shoot
How do implicit biases affect shooter bias by police officers?
Police appear to use greater force with black than white suspects and black suspects are more likely to die at the hands of police than white suspects
Minorities are stopped, questioned, and frisked on streets, and they are disproportionately pulled over for traffic violations on the nation's highways
How can the information that police officers receive from dispatchers affect their behavior? What happens when dispatchers are influenced by their own implicit bias?
Racial bias in shooting decisions, as observed in laboratory studies, might be more likely when an officer is relatively untrained, has no dispatch information about a person
Describe the shooting of Tamir Rice and explain how biases were likely to have contributed to this shooting.
- Information was not relayed that caller thought it was a juvenile and that the "gun" was likely a toy.
- Black boys are often misperceived as 5-10 years older, and more dangerous by civilians and police.
Who is most likely to use non-fatal excessive force?
Males are more likely to use excessive force, less trusted by community, perceived as less effective.
Describe the differences in community perception of male officers vs. female officers in the use of force.
Females are less likely to use force compared to males. When females do use force, the public tends to believe it is probably justified and not excessive
Is the use of force common among police officers? What kinds of force are most common, and when does it happen?
Use of force is infrequent
Typically involves pushing, grabbing, shoving
Often when police are trying to make an arrest and suspect is resisting
What are some examples of threats, or non-fatal excessive force used by police?
- Threatening to use force
- Pushing, grabbing, hitting, or kicking
- Using a chemical or pepper spray
- Using an electroshock weapon
- Pointing a gun
- Using some other type of force (such as threatening to arrest)
What are the characteristics of officers who are cited for use of excessive force?
- Personality patterns that reflect a lack of empathy for others and antisocial, narcissistic, and abusive tendencies
Are there any post-hiring early warning signs that an officer is more likely to use excessive force?
- Previous job-related experiences such as involvement in justifiable police shootings
- Experienced early career-stage problems having to do with their impressionability, impulsiveness, low tolerance for frustration, and general need for strong supervision
- Dominant, heavy-handed patrol style that is particularly sensitive to challenge and provocation
- Personal problems such as separation, divorce, or perceived loss of status that caused extreme anxiety and destabilized job functioning.
Can you identify individuals prone to excessive force before they are hired?
There are data-based management tools, usually consisting of three basic phases: selection, intervention, and post-intervention monitoring that are increasingly being introduced into police agencies nationwide.
What are the types of corruption?
A wide range of illegal behaviors that represent a violation of the public trust
- Accepting bribes, confiscating drugs or drug money, planting evidence, and soliciting sexual activity in exchange for giving a suspect a "break" are all illustrations.
What are the characteristics of officers who act corruptly?
- Difficulty getting along with others.
- Delinquent or problem histories in their police careers.
- Indications of maladjustment, immaturity, irresponsibility, or unreliability.
What predictors may help identify which officers most at risk for corrupt behavior?
- Officers who got into trouble for misconduct early in their careers were most likely to be punished for later acts of corruption.
What is profiling?
A technique to identify behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and demographic characteristics of a person based on information gathered from a wide range of sources regarding a crime
- Few people think it is reliable and valid
What is behavioral analysis?
Identifying the unknown person and inferring their characteristics
- Can also be studying known criminals to develop profiles of unknown criminals
What is the difference between profiling and criminal investigative analysis?
They are the same
What is crime-scene profiling?
Crime scene profiling examines features of the crime scene to infer or deduct characteristics or motivations of offender.
How is evidence at the crime scene used in profiling?
- Profiler tries to predict characteristics, behaviors, patterns, etc. of the perpetrator
- Profile tries to predict likely next victim or area of a crime.
What kind of crime tends to be profiled?
What is the science behind crime scene profiling?
Lacks credible and scientific foundations to meet Daubert standard
- Often based on unvalidated assumptions and subject to investigator biases, especially commitment bias.
What are common misconceptions about crime scene profiling?
- Profilers make predictions or assumptions about an offender's personality.
- Crime scene profiling is an established scientific enterprise.
What is the usefulness of crime scene profiling? Do you think it's worth the time and effort to develop profiles?
- Adopted when little headway made.
- Develops hypotheses to identify person
- Doesn't indicate directly the person who committed the crime.
- May help develop a reasonable set of hypotheses for identifying the persons who might have been responsible for a crime or series of crimes.
What is a case linkage analysis?
Identifying crimes that are likely committed by the same person
What are the types of crimes that lend themselves to this type of analysis?
Behavioral consistency and behavioral distinctiveness
- Similar enough that it can be recognized across a series of offenses
- Distinctive enough that it can be distinguished from other offenders' behavior.
Compare and contrast the popular media version of crime scene profiling vs. the reality of crime-scene profiling.
Entertaining, but little scientific validity
- Procedures are not consistent or clear
- Not on method or terminology to describe procedures
What are the pros and cons of relying on "gut feelings?
- Science isn't based on intuition or belief
- People identified by profiling may or may not be guilty, but their lives can be ruined.
What is the Daubert Standard, and why does this preclude crime scene profiling as admissible evidence?
The Daubert standard is a rule of evidence regarding the admissibility of expert witness testimony.
- Scientific testimony must be based on scientifically valid reasoning
How do confirmations biases play a role in crime scene profiling?
We believe what we want to believe, and use evidence that confirms our beliefs.
Describe the case of Richard Jewell, who was identified as the Atlanta Olympic bomber through crime scene profiling.
Jewell was considered a suspect based on scientific profiling
- Underwent a "trial by media", which took a toll on his personal and professional life
- Eric Rudolph eventually confessed and pleaded guilty to that bombing and other attacks.
What is geographical profiling?
Geographical profile is the analysis of geographical locations associated with a single serial offender
What types of crimes are typically analyzed with geographical profiling?
Burglaries, car thefts, arsons, sexual assaults, bombings, bank robberies, child abductions, murders
- Crimes where primary suspect is considered to be a single or small group of people
What is a "comfort zone"?
Offenders will operate within a "comfort zone" that can be near or far from their home
Define criminal geographic targeting (CGT). What is the theory behind geographic profiling and what use it is to law enforcement?
Criminal geographic targeting is mathematical modeling of the relationship between what offenders do when they aren't offending and where they commit their crimes
- Primarily helps with identification of locations for surveillance
What is suspect-based profiling?
Collecting data (behavior, cognition, demographic, personality) on previous offenders to identify people who share those characteristics
What is the problem with suspect-based profiling?
Racial profiling, ethnic profiling, religious profiling
Psychological profiling is used for what?
Psychological profiling is used to gather information on individuals who pose a threat or are perceived to be dangerous
- Assess threat level
- Assess risk of harm to self or others
- Profiles of "typical" sex offender, batterer, etc.
Is psychological profiling a well-supported type of profiling?
It is very speculative
What is a psychological autopsy?
A psychological autopsy seeks to identify a person's mental state before death
What is an equivocal death?
The manner of death is unknown or can't be determined
Why would a psychological autopsy be used in the event of an equivocal death?
- How did the person die and why?
It could identify if someone is at fault, or be helpful to surviving family members
Using the example of Prozac, describe why a psychological autopsy was performed as part of the litigation.
A psychological autopsy can be used for insurance or litigation purposes.
- Did Prozac make X person suicidal?
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Bundle: A Concise Introduction To Logic Aplia 1 Term Printed Access Card
Patrick J. Hurley
Sets found in the same folder
Exam 2 Forensic Psych
Exam 3 Forensic Psychology
Exam 4 Notes Forensic Psychology
Exam 5 Bartol
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 1: Introduction to Forensic Psychology
Intro to Forensic Psychology - Key vocab
Clinical Psych Ch. 1: What is Clinical Psychology?
Intro to Clinical Psychology-Exam 1
Other sets by this creator
Chapter 5 D&B
D&B Exam 1
Other Quizlet sets
organic chem final
patterns of inheritance exam questions
PSYC 2150 Midterm Questions
Eco. 101 Final (exam 3)