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bio chapter 6 sections 1, 2, and 3
Terms in this set (48)
What are the two major groups of cells that make up organisms?
somatic and germ cells
For each somatic cell, what does each species have a characteristic number of?
How many chromosomes do humans have? And in how many pairs?
46 chromosomes, 23 pairs
Which type of cells make up most of an organisms body tissues and organs?
Which two types of gametes make up the germ cells of an organism?
Eggs and sperm cells
What two characteristics do homologous chromosomes have in common?
Length and general appearance
What letters are given to the 23rd sex chromosome in the human genome?
X and Y
Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of what?
What type of body cells are diploid? Which type of body cells are haploid?
What happens to the nucleus during the process of meiosis?
Divides to create 4 haploid cells
In meiosis, how many phases are there to each round of cell division?
Which type of chromosome are divided in meiosis I? Meiosis II?
Homologous, sister chromatids
What type and number of cells are produced in meiosis I?
2 haploid cells
Is DNA duplicated during meiosis I?
What type of cells are produced at the end of meiosis II?
4 haploid cells
Differences in the final stages of gametogenesis are based upon what?
Gender of parent organism
Which type of cell contains the DNA of the male gamete?
Which cell organelle provides sperm cells with the energy needed for the cells survival and movement?
Which type of cell contains the DNA of the female gamete?
For mammals, when does egg formation begin inside the female body?
What term is given to distinguishing characteristics that are inherited?
Who is given credit for establishing the study of genetics as a modern science? What was his profession?
Gregor Mendel, a monk
What are the three things Mendel used to discover how organisms inherit genes from parent organisms?
Mathematics, detailed records, and extensive breeding of plants
What types of plants did Mendel use in his genetic studies? And for what reason did he use this type of plant?
Pea plants, reproduce quickly and their reproduction could be easily controlled
How was Mendel able to control pollination of the pea plants to control genetic outcomes?
Removing the male part of the flower
List the seven characteristics of pea plants that Mendel monitored to follow patterns of inheritance.
Pea shape and color, pod shape and color, plant height, flower color, flower position
What did Mendel discover about traits that were not shown or expressed in offspring?
It didn't just disappear, it was hidden/masked
What type of mathematics did Mendel use to evaluate genetic crosses in pea plants?
What is another name for Mendel's first law?
Law of segregation
Cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes
Sex cell; an egg or sperm cell
Chromosomes that have the same length appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ
chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics
Process by which 2 gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced
Fusion of an egg and sperm cell
Cell that has 2 copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm
cell that has only one copy of each chromosome
form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells; important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction
Process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes
Haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female of many species; these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate
Characteristic that is inherited
Study of the heredity patterns and variation of organisms
type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform
Mating of 2 organisms
Mendel's 1st law; stating that (1) organisms inherit 2 copies of genes, one from each parent (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation
Law of segregation
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