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Which of the following statements regarding a DNA double helix is always true?

The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine

The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called


We would expect that a 12-nucleotide sequence will direct the production of a polypeptide that consists of

4 amino acids

When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains

50% of the parent DNA

The envelope of a flu virus

helps the virus enter the cell

Which of the following statements about herpesviruses is false?

Herpesviruses reproduce inside the host cell's mitochondria

Which of the following statements about the treatment or prevention for a prion infection is true?

There is no known treatment or cure for prion infections

When a T2 bacteriophage infects an Escherichia coli cell, which part of the phage enters the bacterial cytoplasm?

only the DNA

DNA replication

uses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand

How many origins of replication and how many replication forks are shown?

3 origins and 6 replication forks

The monomers of DNA and RNA are


Which of the following features characterizes the lytic cycle of a viral infection?

The cycle typically leads to the lysis of the host cell.

Which of the following shows the steps of a viral infection in the proper order?

virus locates host cell --> penetrates cell membrane --> enters nucleus --> alters host cell DNA --> host cell produces copies of virus

Consider the following sentence: "The dog did not eat." Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a reading frame mutation?

The dod idn ote at.

Which of the following takes place during translation?

the conversion of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins

Which of the following statements regarding the flow of genetic information is false?

Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

Conjugation, transformation and transduction are all ways that bacteria

increase their genetic diversity

Which of the following statements regarding RNA is false?

RNA uses the sugar dextrose

Multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells serve to

shorten the time necessary for DNA replication

The shape of a DNA molecule is most like

a twisted rope ladder

Which of the following statements regarding viruses is false?

A virus is generally considered to be alive because it is cellular and can reproduce on it's own.

What kind of virus is HIV?

a retrovirus

A protein shell enclosing a viral genome is known as a(n)


A base substitution mutation in a gene does not always result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this?

the fact that some amino acids are specified from more than one codon

One type of virus that infects bacteria is called a


What will be the most likely cause of a new avian flu pandemic like the 1918-1919 flu pandemic that killed approximately 40 million people worldwide?

easy viral transmission from person to person

Which of the following is not needed in order for translation to occur?

DNA template

Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells?

in the cytoplasm

In many bacteria, genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried on

R plasmids

Why does a DNA strand grow only in the 5' to 3' direction?

because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing molecule

A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus from his computer. Without knowing it, you infect your computer with the virus when you open the email. This process of spreading the computer virus using emails is most like which of the following processes?


Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called

a mutation

Consider the following sentence: "The dog did not eat." Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a base mutation?

The doe did not eat.

How would the shape of a DNA molecule change if adenine paired with guanine and cytosine paired with thymine?

The DNA molecule would have irregular widths along its length.

A physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a(n)


What nucleotide sequence would be found on the partner DNA strand of the strand shown?


Which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids?

heavy use of antibiotics in medicine and in agriculture

Which of the following options best depicts the flow of information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular component?

DNA --> RNA --> protein

HIV does the greatest damage to

T cells

Which of the following statements about eukaryotic RNA is true?

Exons are spliced together

The directions for each amino acid in a polypeptide are indicated by a codon that consists of _______ nucleotide(s) in an RNA molecule.


Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?

DNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil

All proteins (amino acid chains) begin with


All proteins (amino acid chains) end with


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