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Bio 102 exam 1
Terms in this set (93)
Prokaryotes evolved ______
3.5 billion years ago
Prokaryotic cell size compared to eukaryotic cell
Are prokaryotes unicellular or multicellular?
Do prokaryotes have organelles?
No. Only eukaryotes have organelles.
Where is the DNA in prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryote DNA structure
circular (usually one chromosomes)
asexual; binary fission
Eukaryote evolved ______________
1.5 billion years ago.
Eukaryotic cell size compared to prokaryotic
Are eukaryotes unicellular, multicellular, or either?
unicellular or multicellular
Eukaryote DNA location
Do eukaryotes have organelles?
Eukaryote DNA structure
not circular (more than one chromosome)
sexual or asexual
Bacteria: Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
bacteria cell walls are made of
Bacteria mode of nutrition
autotroph or heterotroph
streptococcus, E. Coli
One of two prokaryotic domains of life, the other being Bacteria, some live in extreme environments
Archaea cell walls
Archaea: unicellular or multicellular?
Archaea mode of nutrition
autotroph or heterotroph
Protist - prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
animal-like, plant-like, fungus-like
Protist: unicellular, multicellular, or both
most unicellular: some colonial: some multicellular
Protist mode of nutrition
autotroph or heterotroph
Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp.
Fungi: Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic?
Fungi cell walls
most multicellular: some unicellular
Fungi mode of nutrition
Plants: Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic?
Plant cell walls consist mainly of _____.
Multicellular or Unicellular
plant mode of nutrition
mosses, ferns, flowering plants
Animals: Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
Do animals have cell walls?
no cell walls
Animal: Unicellular or Multicellular?
animal mode of nutrition
sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals.
outer layer surrounding cell that provides
long thread of DNA that form a complex with protein.
contain hereditary information.
Protein (no DNA or RNA)
Scrapie, Mad Cow Disease, Kuru
HIV Replication step 1
Fusion of HIV to the host cell surface
HIV replication step 2
HIV RNA, reverse transcriptase, integrase and other viral proteins enter the host cell.
HIV replication step 3
Viral DNA is form by reverse transcription
HIV replication step 4
Viral DNA is transported across the nucleus and integrates into the host DNA
HIV replication step 5
New viral RNA is used as genomic RNA and to make viral proteins
HIV replication step 6
New viral RNA and proteins move to the cells surface and a new immature, HIV forms.
HIV replication step 7
The virus matures by protease releasing individual HIV proteins.
virus that parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside it.
enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell
enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template
The protein container, and the genetic material can be either DNA or RNA.
Some viruses wrap themselves in a bit of the plasma membrane of the host cell as they are released. The flu virus is an example
most is unique and not found in other domains
3 domains of living things
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
The scientific name of an organism
genus and specific epithet
Appendages that allow bacteria to attach to each other and to transfer DNA
Are the majority of bacteria pathogenic?
Photosynthetic, oxygen-producing bacteria
Are loops of DNA in bacteria
Bacterial capsule function
Allows cell to hide from immune system
acquire energy and carbon from organic molecules
Bacteria that have a thick peptido glycan cell wall, and no outer membrane. They stain very darkly (purple) in Gram stain.
type of bacteria that stain red with Gram stain and have a thin cell wall with an outer membrane
most diverse domain
Are viruses alive?
No. Not living organisms
Contains genetic material either DNA or RNA, and a protein coat.
vaccines work best with which type of virus?
A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen
agent that destroys viruses
An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA with reverse transcriptase and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome
An enzyme encoded by some certain viruses (retroviruses) that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
how do viruses attach to host cells?
receptors on host cell surface
SARS-coV genetic info
the common cold infects which type of cells?
bacteria, and some fungi and protists
modern phylogenetic trees use
a parasite protist that is most commonly transmitted from pets to humans by contact with contaminated animal feces
Where does plasmodium go when it first enters our body?
a theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells
endosymbiotic theory evidence
-Mitochondria and chloroplast have 2 membranes
-Mitochondria have their own circular DNA, similar to bacteria
-Mitochondria are close to the same size as bacteria
One of a group of marine, multicellular, autotrophic protists, the most common type of seaweed. Brown algae include the kelps.
A unicellular photosynthetic alga with a unique glassy cell wall containing silica, can be used as biofuel.
plant-like protist that causes red tide
A phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
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