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PBS 2020 Quiz 4 Forensic Science Terms
Terms in this set (90)
An injury in which the skin has been scraped off.
Fuel used to make a deliberately set fire burn more vigorously
Automated Fingerprint Identification System. Scans fingerprints electronically and plots the positions of their ridge characteristics, comparing them with prints in a database.
Albert S. Osborn
Developed the principles of document examination
The postmortem cooling of the body.
Father of criminal identification
Identification and examination of human skeletal remains
Fingerprint ridges that rise above one another at their center like an arch.
The internal and external examination of a body after death. An autopsy is performed to confirm or determine the cause of death and establish other pre-death conditions, such as the type of food last consumed and the time it was consumed.
The study of the motion of bullets and their examination for distinctive characteristics after being fired. Examiners can use this evidence to match bullets or bullet fragments to specific weapons.
Find DNA matches to blood stains, body fluids, hairs, and fibers
The pattern of blood that has struck a surface. This pattern can provide vital information about the source of the blood. Can help determine the size and type of wound, the direction and the speed with which the perpetrator or victim was moving, and the type of weapon used to create the blood spill.
The diameter of the bore of a rifled firearm, usually expressed in hundredths of an inch or in millimeters.
Developed the method for microscope in the usage of the comparsion of firearms
Cause of death
The action that resulted in death, a blow to the head or brain hemorrhage
Closed-circuit television; Surveillance camera used to record crimes being committed, to find lost persons, or to prevent crime.
Chain of Custody
A list that records every official person who handles a piece of evidence. Those in the chain put their initials and the date on the evidence container.
An old unsolved criminal case. Many are now being solved with the advent of DNA test.
A sketch of a suspect produced from eyewitness descriptions of one or more persons.
The act of ruining evidence by accidentally depositing outside trace evidence, including DNA, on items from a crime scene or suspect.
A bruise in which the skin is not broken.
Public official who is responsible for investigating any death that may not have had a natural cause
Crime Scene Investigation Unit
Specially trained personnel (civilian and/or police) to collect and preserve physical evidence to be processed at the crime lab.
The study of criminal activity and how it is dealt with by the law.
The technique by which DNA fragments are placed in a gel and charged with electricity. An applied electric field then separates the fragments by size, as part of the process of creating a genetic profile.
The process of testing to identify DNA patterns or types. In forensic science this testing is used to indicate parentage or to exclude or include individuals as possible sources of bodily fluid stains (blood, saliva, semen) and other biological evidence (bones, hair, teeth)
Dead on arrival
Study of insects in relation to a criminal investigation
Anything that has been used, left, removed, altered, or contaminated during the commission of a crime or other event under investigation
A person assigned of a suspect collecting and storing evidence
A witness who through education and /or expirience has knowledge on a subject that aids in the incrimination of a suspect
The unique patterns created by skin ridges found on the palm sides of fingers and thumbs.
Forensic Computer and Digital Analysis
Identifiying, collecting, preserving and examining information and other digital devices.
Human Behavioral Patterns and Profiles
Application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.
A break, crack, or shattering of a bone
Developed the method of classifying fingerprints
Functions of a Forensic Scientist
Analysis of physical, Provide expert witness testimony, provide training in recognition collection, preservation of evidence
Gas Chromatograph (GC)
A forensic tool used to identify the chemical makeup of substances used in the commission of crimes. The questioned substance is burned at high temperatures. The temperature at which this material becomes gas is then charted to determine its makeup.
A unit of inheritance consisting of a sequence of DNA that determines a particular characteristic in an organism.
The complete set of DNA within a cell
A red blood cell protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the bloodstream. Provides the red coloring of blood.
A system used for classifying 10-fingerprint collections. Developed in 1899 by Sir Edward R. Henry with the British police in India
Examination of the visible depression appearing on a sheet of paper underneath the one on which the visible writing appreas.
A cut that is deep enough to need stitches
A fingerprint made by deposits of oils and/or perspiration, not usually visible to the human eye.
Developed the method for blood typing
Lie Detection by means of a machine that charts how respiration and other bodily functions change as questions are asked of the person being tested. Also known as a polygraph. An attempt to knowingly provide false answers can cause changes in bodily functions.
A cordlike object used for strangulation
Fingerprint patterns consisting of ridges that double back on themselves.
A chemical that is capable of detecting bloodstains diluted up to 10,000 times. Is used to identify blood that has been removed from a given area.
Manner of Death
Legal classification of how someone died determined by the coroner. Suicide, natural, accidental, or homicide
A technique used by toxicologist to identify chemical compositions. The instrument breaks a chemical down into its ions and accelerates them in a magnetic field that produces a unique spectrum.
Trained medical practitioner who devotes some or all of their time to forensic work
Mitochrondrial DNA (mtDNA)
Used to trace ancestry. Type of DNA located in the mitochondrion of most cells. Last longer than nuclear DNA. Only comes from the mother
The unique DNA that is inherited from each parent
The scientific study of disease and its causes, processes, and effects.
Evidence in which the shape or distribution of a substance provides information rather than the substance itself.
Polymerase chain reaction. A "molecular photocopying" technique that amplifies specific regions of a DNA strand, used to copy DNA
At or around the time of death
Any object that can help explain an event under investigation, Can establish that a crime has been committed, and Sometimes can provide a link between a crime and its victim or between a crime and its perpetrator.
Postmortem interval, Time since death
Simple test that shows that a sample probably contains the substance the test aims to identify
Reconstruction of a crime
Determining the way a crime happened, pieced together using evidence at the crime scene.
Ridge endings, bifurcations, enclosures, and other ridge details, which must match in two fingerprints for their common origin to be established.
A stiffening of the body that occurs about 30 minutes after death and continues for up to 18 hours.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
DNA Testing that pinpoints ethnicity
Super Glue Fuming
Techniques used to develop latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces. A chemical in the glue reacts with and adheres to the finger oils, and then exposes latent prints.
An individual who might possibly have committed the crime under investigation. Guilt is presumed or has been proven
Time of death, The time a body died
Examination of Body fluids and organs for the presence or absence of drugs and poisons.
Material deposited at a crime or accident scene that can only be detected through a deliberate processing procedure. An individual entering any environment will deposit traces of his or her presence, and this material can be used as evidence. Examples- hairs and fibers
A wound or a physical or emotional shock to the body
Fingerprint patterns that resemble small whirlpools revolving around a point.
A single test that specifically identifies a substance
a preliminary test used to reduce the number of possible identities of an unknown substance
specialist in the study of poisons
the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
The transport of dissolved substances into cells.
GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate)
is a depressant of the central nervous system, and that is used illicitly to produce sedative and euphoric effects and is a known date rape drug that some also use recreationally to cause impairment.
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
hallucinogenic drug used in anaesthesia which has a glutaminergic effect and is commonly referred to as"special K" when used as a street drug
a class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system's natural receptor sites for endorphins
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
A synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects.
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
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