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French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era
Terms in this set (66)
Before the 1789 Revolution, "Old Regime" France was divided into three estates: First Estate: Roman Catholic clergy (approximately 1% population) Second Estate: nobility (approximately 2% population) Third Estate: all the rest, including the bourgeoisie, city workers, rural peasants, and artisans (97% population).
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Women's March on Versailles
On October 5, 1789 an angry mob of Parisian women stormed through Versailles demanding Louis XVI end the nationwide food shortage and that the royal family return to Paris with them.
Advanced French Political group that strongly advocated enlightenment thought and believed in their hearts that France should be a republic- very extreme
Counter Revolution Movement
Movement of people who were against the French Revolution.
Republic of Virtue
Robespierre's attempt to erase all traces of the monarchy, nobility and the Catholic Church
Concordant of 1801
An agreement in which the pope was to give up all his claims to French land acquired during the revolution, and to allow France to have its own French Bishops. The French had to recognize Catholism as the religion of the majority of French People.
Invasion of Russia
1812-Led by Napoleon I of France in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. The campaign reduced the French and allied invasion forces to less than two percent of their initial strength.
1776 pamphlet by Thomas Paine that persuaded many Americans to support the Revolutionary cause
British navy commander who defeated Napoleon in Egypt (The Battles of the Nile) and Trafalgar; naval supremacy saved Britain from the invasion and shattered Napoleon's dreams of an overseas empire
The seigneurial system was introduced to New France in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu. Richelieu granted the newly formed Company of New France all lands between the Arctic Circle to the north, Florida to the south, Lake Superior in the west, and the Atlantic in the east. In exchange for this vast land grant and the exclusive trading rights tied to it, the Company was expected to bring two to three hundred settlers to New France in 1628, and a subsequent four thousand during the next fifteen years. To achieve this, the Company subgranted almost all of the land awarded to it by Cardinal Richelieu. Despite the official arrangement reached between Cardinal Richelieu and the Company of New France, levels of immigration to French colonies in North America remained extremely low. The resulting scarcity of labor had a profound effect on the system of land distribution. In practice, the lands were arranged in long, narrow strips called, seigneuries, along the banks of the St. Lawrence River, its estuaries, and other key transit features. Both in nominal and legal terms, all French territorial claims in North America belonged to the King of France. French monarchs did not impose the seigneurial system on New France, and the king's actual attachment to these lands was virtually non-existent. Instead, Seigneurs were allotted land holdings and presided over the French colonial agricultural system in North America.
This physical layout of seigneurial property developed as a means of maximizing ease of transit, commerce, and communication by exploiting naturally occurring riparian networks (most notably, the St. Lawrence river) and the relatively sparse man-made infrastructure. A desirable plot had to be directly bordering or in very close proximity to a river system, which plot-expansion was limited to one of two directions—left or right
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
head of finances in France (i.e. Turgot, Necker, Calonne, Brienne)
suggested tough love to Louis XVI on the nobles to try and subdue the parlements opposition to taxation. Led to the calling of the Estates-General in 1788
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
Jean Paul Marat
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
the Gov't of France from 1799-1804-from the fall of the Directory in the coup of 18 Bromaire until the start of the Napoleonic Empire. The term Consulate refers to this period of French history. During this period, Napoleon, as First Consul had established himself as the head of gov't in France but had not yet declared himself Emperor.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Madame Germaine de Stael
participated in politically and intellectual life. her works made their mark on european romanticsm, daughter of Necker; taught Enlightenment ideas; asked Napoleon who he considered the greatest woman, alive or dead; he replied "The one who has had the most children"
Most Radical political faction in the Convention. Became fierce critics of the Girondins. The Mountain & Jacobins will eventually become synonymous. Claimed to represent the aims of the Sans-culottes.
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
During the Terror, The Catholic Church was linked to real or potential counter-revolutions. Religion was linked with the Ancient Regime, and Superstition, and so the Committee of Public Safety enacted measures to reduce its influence. IT included: New Calendar, aboloishment of Religious holidays, new names for months, 7-day weeks replaced with 10-day decades.
Declaration of Pillnitz
A statement agreed upon by Leopold II and Fredrick William II to intervene if Louis XVI was threatened by revolution
Elba and St. Helena
These were the islands which Napoleon was exiled to. Elba the first, which had other people on it and after thinking about reforms/policies he tried to come back to power however was exiled again to a very isolated island (eventually to die).
Nobility of the Robe
new nobles who purchased their titles from the monarchy, became high officials in govt. and remained loyal to king
Charles de Calonne
The controller general of finance appointed by King Louis XVI after Jacques Necker was forced out of office in 1781. Calonne proposed a daring plan to shift the French tax burden from the poor to wealthy nobles and businessmen, suggesting a tax on land proportional to land values and a lessened tax burden for peasants. The French nobility, however, refused to pay these taxes.
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
government run public schools set up by Napoleon to creat a more equal chance at education. However this didnt really allow the poorer children to get a better education because they oftern had to stay home and work.
Duke of Wellington
An ambassador to France granted dukedom following Napoleon's exile in 1814, British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, Prime Minister of England, 1828 to 1830. Tory but very reactionary. No in favor of reforms and made it difficult for tory reformers to get more done. But Tories lost in election of 1830 to Whigs. New Whig govt under Earl Grey then introduced the Reform Bill of 1832 which extended the franchise to the middle class. Duke of W had held tories back from championing reform.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
French prison that became known as a symbol of the royal abuse of power; , July 1789, people are angry with king so they go into this castle where they believe arms are hidden. One of the first steps of revolt.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A body of legislation passed in July 1790 that redefined the relationship between the clergy and the state in France. It allowed for the confiscation of church property formerly used to support the clergy, replacing it with a guarantee of state salaries for clergymen instead. It also stipulated that parish priests and bishops be elected just like public officials. The National Assembly attempted to enforce it by requiring the clergy to take an oath, divided public opinion of the French Revolution (1789-99) and galvanized religious opposition.
a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Reaction to end of Terror. Because of the success of the French army (now 800,000 strong) many in France no longer willing to put up with Terror atmosphere - no longer a national emergency. Also, Robespierre and the Committee had antagonized all significant parties in France. Working Class radicals no longer supported him. His elimination of Danton caused Convention to distrust him. The Convention obtained "outlawing" of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor(July 27) 1794. He was guillotined the next day. The Thermidorean reaction lasted for several months thereafter. The Terror subsided, Jacobin clubs were closed and the powers of the Committee were reduced. There was a period of Middle Class moderate ascendancy.
French civil code, established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
A Swiss-born banker who served as France's director general of finance in the late 1770s, with high hopes of instituting reform. As it turned out, Necker was able only to propose small efforts at eliminating costly inefficiencies. He did produce a government budget, however, for the first time in French history.
A conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.
Nobility of the Sword
- the old fashioned nobility who gain their power by fighting for land. There was constant conflict between them and nobility of the robe.
levy en masse
This was a military requisition- a draft- on the entire population- everybody had a part to play- males were conscripted into army and all economic production was directed to military purposes., During the French Revolution in August of 1793, it decreed the lévee en masse—a "requisition" of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 to be placed at the disposal of the French Army.
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
1781)- French economist who in 1774 was put in control of finances by Louis XVI; his proposals for reforms that involved abolishing feudal privileges made him unpopular with the aristocracy and in 1776 he was dismissed (1727-1781)
Society of Thirty
A club composed of people from the Paris Salons, they were "Lovers of Liberty," and embraced enlightenment and American ideas of individual liberties, republicanism, and popular sovereignty. Lafayette returned from his duties during the American Revolution and joined the club.
(1748-1836) Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
A document drafted by the National Assembly promising all men their natural rights and the freedom of expression. No mechanism to enforce these rights
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
Reign of Terror
1793- 1794; let terror be the order of the day; 2 representative go with the generals to encourage the general; if they lose, the general dies; 40,000 men died
(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.
The Grand Army and Empire
when, in 1805, Napoleon I renamed the army that he had assembled on the French coast of the English Channel for the proposed invasion of Britain. It never achieved that goal. Napoleon decided to re-deploy it east in order to eliminate the threat of Austria and Russia, which were part of the Third Coalition assembled against France. Thereafter, the name was used for the principal French army deployed in the Campaigns of 1805 and 1807, where it got its prestige, 1809, 1812, and 1813-14. In practice, however, the term "Grande Armée" is used in English to refer to all of the multinational forces gathered by Napoleon I in his campaigns of the early 19th century
In December of 1789 this was a paper currency issued by the Constituent Assembly which had confiscated church property and issued this paper money based on this land. Initially could just by land with it though later it was used as a general currency. Supposed to help ease the difficulties of peasants but all sorts of problems with it - overissued plus easily forged.
Issued by Prussia and Austria on July 25, 1792. Stated that if harm done to the king or queen there would be severe retribution. Mistake - played right into hands of radical revolutionaries in France. They used it to panic France into thinking invasion imminent. Began recruiting defence force.
Counter-revolution in southern France in 1792-1793 that spread to many regions
Lists of grievances sent by provinces to the meeting of the Estates General called by Louis XVI in 1788, which he needed to obtain approval for new taxes to combat France's ruinous economy.
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
Constitution of 1791
Constitution prepared by National Assembly which was increasingly referred to as the Constituent Assembly. Document complete in 1791. Established a unicameral(one-chambered) assembly which was the legislature(law-making body). The king had a suspensive(delaying) veto only therefore the executive branch of govt. was weak.
counties or administrative division were put in the place of historic provinces (Brittany, Normandy), this ultimately had the effect of weakening traditional, local, loyalties and shifting primary loyalty to the french nation
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
Napoleon's quest to reclaim his imperial throne in France, after escaping Elba. He reassembled troops and reclaimed the throne, but was defeated this many days later by the British at Waterloo in Belgium.
A requirement that certain peasants labor on the roads a few days each year - Turgot wanted to replace this with a money tax which would fall on all classes.
A sense of unity binding the people of a state together; devotion to the interests of a particular country or nation, an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals.
Battle of Waterloo
-Napoleon escaped Elba and became emperor, so the European allies marshaled their armies--> the British army was led by the Duke of Wellington, and they prepared near village of Waterloo in Belgium (1815
This young woman was executed during the French Revolution for assassinating fiery, radical newspaper editor and Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat while he was in his bathtub
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