Abernathy/Waples, American Government: Stories of a Nation, Presidential Election Update 1E - Chapter 4

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pork barrel spending
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Terms in this set (41)
incumbenta political official who is currently in office.incumbency advantageinstitutional advantages held by those already in office who are trying to fend off challengers in an election.Speaker of the Housethe leader of the House of Representatives, chosen by an election of its members.political action committee (PAC)an organization that raises money for candidates and campaigns.House majority leaderthe person who is the second in command of the House of Representatives.whipa member of Congress, chosen by his or her party members, whose job is to ensure party unity and discipline.minority leaderthe head of the party with the secondhighest number of seats in Congress, chosen by the party's members.Senate majority leaderthe person who has the most power in the Senate and is the head of the party with the most seats.committee chairleader of a congressional committee who has authority over the committee's agenda.discharge petitiona motion filed by a member of Congress to move a bill out of committee and onto the floor of the House of Representatives for a vote.House Rules Committeea powerful committee that determines when a bill will be subject to debate and vote on the House floor, how long the debate will last, and whether amendments will be allowed on the floor.Committee of the Wholeconsists of all members of the House and meets in the House chamber but is governed by different rules, making it easier to consider complex and controversial legislation.holda delay placed on legislation by a senator who objects to a bill.unanimous consent agreementan agreement in the Senate that sets the terms for consideration of a bill.filibustera tactic through which an individual senator may use the right of unlimited debate to delay a motion or postpone action on a piece of legislation.cloturea procedure through which senators can end a filibuster and proceed to action, provided threefifths of senators agree to it.vetoformal rejection by the president of a bill that has passed both houses of Congress.Office of Management and Budget (OMB)the executive branch office that assists the president in setting national spending priorities.entitlement programa program that provides benefits for those who qualify under the law, regardless of income.mandatory spendingspending required by existing laws that is "locked in" the budget.discretionary spendingspending for programs and policies at the discretion of Congress and the president.budget surplusthe amount of money remaining when the government takes in more money than it spends.budget deficitthe difference when a government takes in less money than it spends.national debtthe total amount of money owed by the federal government.delegate rolethe idea that the main duty of a member of Congress is to carry out constituent wishes.trustee rolethe idea that members of Congress should act as trustees, making decisions based on their knowledge and judgment.politico rolerepresentation where members of Congress balance their choices with the interests of their constituents and parties in making decisions.bipartisanshipagreement between the parties to work together in Congress to pass legislation.gridlocka slowdown or halt in Congress's ability to legislate and overcome divisions, especially those based on partisanship.divided governmenta situation that occurs when control of the presidency and one or both chambers of Congress is split between the two major parties.lame duck periodperiod at the end of a presidential term when Congress may block presidential initiatives and nominees.