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Modern WHAP Chapter 32 Overview: Americas in the Age of Revolution: Unit 5: (1750-1900)
Terms in this set (73)
When did Western Hemisphere win independence?
During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries
What country controlled all the temperate regions of North America?
The United States
What complicated building "enlightened societies" in the Americas?
Both the institution of slavery and its ultimate abolition
What 3 labor systems betrayed American promises of welcome and freedom?
Plantations, Factories, and Debt Peonage
T or F: Independence solved the political/social problems of the Western hemisphere.
What country gained their independence from Britain without a war?
T or F: Canada was intermittently nervous about the U.S. expanding north into Canada.
What type of voting requirements disappeared by the 1820 in the United States?
Most property qualifications
Who allowed the U.S. to purchase the Louisiana territory in 1803?
A cultural belief to occupy all of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean
An expression of religious beliefs that included a vision of an afterlife in which all white peoples disappeared. (Whites wanted these religious ceremonies suppressed)
The Ghost Dance
What country did the U.S defeat and take territory from in the 1840s?
What were the 2 dominant ethnic groups in Canada.
The British Canadians and French Canadians
What war caused New France (Canada) to fall into the hands of the British?
The Seven Years' War
Who fled to Canada following the Revolutionary War in 1781?
What war stimulate a sense of unity and national pride in Canada?
The War of 1812
What did the Durham Report advocate?
A good deal of self-government for a united Canada, and his report became a model for British imperial policy and colonial self-rule in other states, including Australia and New Zealand
Where was political unity short-lived in the Western Hemisphere?
Who worked to establish a large Latin American confederation?
What did Bolivar fear more than war?
What was impossible to sustain after the defeat of a common colonial enemy?
Who provided Latin American states with written constitutions?
Why did creole elites (leaders) have little experience with self government.?
Spanish and Portuguese colonial regimes were far more autocratic than was the British imperial government in North America
Who prevented mass participation in Latin American public affairs?
Who lived entirely outside of the political system of Latin American states?
Millions of indigenous peoples
What did the disillusioned do without an institutionalized means of expressing discontent?
Where did the indigenous people in the Americas retreat to?
Marginal lands that were unattractive to cultivators and ranchers
Regional military leaders who came to power in much of Latin America
What kind of heroes did Latin America have after the wars of independence?
What did military leaders who took the political stage appeal to in order to gain power?
Populist sentiments and exploiting the discontent of the masses
What did the caudillos make a "tool of the government"?
What 2 institutions did Benito Juarez's La Reforma movement want to limit?
The power of the military and the Roman Catholic church in Mexican society
What accounted for almost half of Mexico's productive land?
What was the intent of the Church land redistribution?
To broaden the base of land ownership, especially among indigenous peoples, and thus improve conditions for the masses
What percentage of Mexico's peasants were landless?
What 2 influences shaped economic development in the Americas in the 19 century/early 20th century?
Mass migration and British investment
What kept Latin American states from developing industrial societies?
Legacies of colonialism, slavery, and economic dependence on single export crops
Where did migrant workers in Latin America work?
T or F: Most migrants imported to South America/Caribbean arrived under contract or as indentured servants
What 2 labor systems did most freed slaves become subject to?
Debt peonage or sharecropping
Where did 4 million Italian migrants move to in the 1880s and 1890s?
Who paid Italian migrants to work for coffee growers after slavery had been abolished in 1888?
The Brazilian government
Who traveled to Jamaica, Trinidad, Tobago, & Guyana to work on plantations as contract laborers?
Who came to Hawaii to tend sugarcane as indentured servants?
Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and Korean migrants
What country's investment had a great impact on United States industry?
T or F: The local industries in Spanish/Portuguese colonies couldn't compete with inexpensive manufactured goods from Britain, France and Germany.
T or F: Latin American elites attempted to develop local industry so they wouldn't have to rely on European trade.
What economic activity did British investors encourage in Argentina?
The development of cattle and sheep ranching
With the development of refrigerated cargo ships, what became Argentina's largest export?
Who profited from Diaz's investment in Mexican railroads, telegraph lines, and steel industry?
The Mexican oligarchy and foreign investors who supported Diaz
What two exports drove Argentina's economy?
Beef and wheat
What two exports drove Brazil's economy?
Rubber and coffee
What two exports drove Cuba's economy?
Tobacco and sugar
58. Who controlled industries/exports in Latin America?
T or F: Latin American governments promoted economic dependence because they personally benefited from it
Where did political & economic power rest almost exclusively with?
The white male elites of European ancestry
How many migrants landed in the U.S. between 1840 and 1914 (WWI)?
Twenty-five million European migrants
From what 2 countries did the U.S. government order a complete halt to migration?
China in 1882 and from Japan in 1907
How did Black Americans reach Canada after the 1830s?
Slavery was legal in the British empire until 1833, and many early settlers brought their slaves to Canada. After the 1830s, escaped slaves from the United States also reached Canada by way of the Underground Railroad.
Why did Chinese migrants go to Canada?
Chinese migrants also came to Canada; lured by gold rushes such as the Fraser River rush of 1858 and by opportunities to work on the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, Chinese migrants lived mostly in segregated Chinatowns in the cities of British Columbia, and like blacks they had little voice in public affairs.
What leader of the metis/indigenous peoples is eventually executed for leading the NW Rebellion?
T or F: Most Latin American states ended the legal recognition of hierarchical distinctions based on ethnicity/color.
What was the cosmopolitan city in 19th Century Latin America* "Paris of the Americas"?
Migration of European workers to Argentina brought a lively diversity to the capital of Buenos Aires, which was perhaps the most cosmopolitan city of nineteenth-century Latin America. With its broad avenues, smart boutiques, and handsome buildings graced with wrought iron, Buenos Aires enjoyed a reputation as "the Paris of the Americas."
What Argentine President despised the rule of caudillos(dictators) that emerged after Latin American independence?
President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
What type of society did President Sarmiento work for in Argentina?
The best society based on European values
What did Sarmiento believe was necessary to bring discipline to the disorderly Argentine countryside?
In his widely read book Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism (1845), Sarmiento argued that it was necessary for Buenos Aires to bring discipline to the disorderly Argentine countryside. Deeply influenced by the Enlightenment, he characterized books, ideas, law, education, and art as products of cities, and he argued that only when cities dominated the countryside would social stability and genuine liberty be possible.
Who did Sarmiento admire even though he believed that they shouldn't make society's crucial decisions?
Argentina's gauchos (cowboys)
Who should make society's crucial decisions according to Sarmiento?
Urban residents rather than ranchers
What type of life did the gauchos lead that appealed to hierarchical Latin American society?
Independent and self-sufficient lives
T or F: By the end of the 19th Century, the gauchos(cowboys) were no longer makers of a viable society.
What was a central characteristic in Latin American society?
What couldn't women do in Latin American society?
Women could not vote or hold office, nor could they work or manage estates without permission from their male guardians
A social ethic that honored male strength, courage, aggressiveness, assertiveness, and cunningness
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