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54 terms

biology

STUDY
PLAY
genetic code for the HIV virus
carried on a short length of RNA
cancer
A disease that occurs when a group of cells in the body reproduce without restraint
DNA fingerprinting
analysis of DNA in human tissue
genetic engineering techniques
developed strawberries that are resistant frost
the colon bacterium, E. coli
used to manufacture insulin
nucleus
where DNA that is modified in genetic engineering procedures
restriction enzyme
cuts a DNA molecule into several pieces
CADD
Computer Assisted Drug Design
double-blind experiment
neither the experimenter nor the subject knows who is given the placebo
Dr. Ian Wilmut
The British biologist who cloned a sheep
polymerase chain reaction
creates numerous copies of select strands of a DNA molecule
Cloning
the process of producing a new individual entirely from the DNA of another individual
"in vitro"
performed outside of a living cell
"in vivo"
performed within a living cell
p53
gene involved in the production of cancer
placebo
substance substituted in place of a drug being tested
variable number tandem repeat"
region of repetition of a nonsense codon
DNA fingerprinting
analysis of variable number tandem repeats
T cells
HIV virus invades
ribosomes
Protein synthesis occurs at this organelle
replication
The copying of the DNA molecule prior to mitosis is called
ribose
sugar is found in RNA
transfer RNA
Amino acid molecules are carried by this form of RNA
uracil
bonds to adenine
codon
A unit of the genetic code consisting of three nucleotides
adenine
bonds to thymine
guanine
bonds to cytosine
cytosine
bonds to guanine
thymine
bonds to adenine
deoxyribose
sugar is found in DNA
messenger RNA
transcribes the DNA code for protein synthesis
transcription
copying of the DNA code onto RNA
translation
production of a polypeptide molecule according to the DNA code
mutation
Any change in the DNA molecule
Nucleotides
building block of nucleic acids
virus
short length of RNA or DNA wrapped in protein coat
dominant
trait that is always expressed
recessive
trait not expressed in the presence of a dominant trait
Australopithecus
extinct organism, evolutionary ancestor to humans
Cenozoic Period
the age of mammals
Stanley Miller
conducted experiments involving the origin of life on the early Earth
Luis Alvarez
proposed that the extinction of the dinosaurs was probably caused by the collision of an asteroid with the Earth.
Cambrian Period
hard outer skeleton characteristic of crabs, lobsters, and grasshoppers appeared during this period.
Charles Darwin
wrote On the Origin of Species
Evolution
change in living organisms over time
Proterozoic
longest geologic era
natural selection
mechanism for evolution of living organisms as proposed by Darwin
living things first appeared on Earth
approximately4 billion years ago
extinct
Organisms that have lived in the past but have disappeared forever from the Earth
Proterozoic
era cells first appear
cyanobacteria
produce oxygen during photosynthesis
Punctuated equilibrium
evolutionary changes usually occur in short bursts, separated by long periods of stability
cytochrome C
One of the universally possessed proteins that has been analyzed extensively for biochemical evidence for evolution
vestigial organ
an example of a appendix