-Peptide YY: when you're full, its a factor that causes satiety.
-There is food in the stomach, which causes streching, or pressure.
-short term, reduces hunger and appetite
-intestine -> satiety : intenstinal distension and the presence of nutrients in the intestines, which signal the brian directly and trigger the release of satiety hormones.
-High levels of nutrients, including glucose, aa, ketones and fatty acids
-Gherlin: increases hunger = short-term
-When body thinks about/sees food/wants food the factors that stimulate hunger and appetite causes the release of Gherlin.
-An empty stomah and release of the hormone Gherlin.
-There are low levels of nutrients in the intestines
-Low levels of circulating nutrients.
-stomach -> hunger
-Leptin=long term, a hormone made by fat cells which regulates the amount of fat stored in the body.
-adipocytes (cells that compose adipose tissue) -> satiety
-reduces food intake
-There are receptors in the brain, in hypothalmus that when increased levels cause weight gain and decreased levels cause weight loss.
-For most people, a loss of 5% to 15% of body weight will significantly reduce disease risk.
-eating less, excersing more, or both?
-1lb fat= 3500 calories
-To lose a 1 lb/week, decrease calories by 500 kcal/day
-1/2 -2 lbs a week helps ensure mostly fat loss and not lean tissue
-lose too fast -> yo-yo diet:
-maintain weight loss:
-decrease energy intake
-increase physical activity
1. Decrease energy or calorie intake
-consume nutrient dense foods (high nutrients/low calorie)
-less than 1200 cals/day take a vit/mineral supp
-less than 800 cals/day need MD supervision
-reduce intake of foods that contain:
-sodas, fruit drinks, cakes, desserts, candy
-high in fat
-fried foods, high fat meat (hamburger, ribs, hot dogs)
-high fat dairy products (whole milk, cheese, cream)
-Need to adjust as weight loss occurs:
-weight loss = less calorie needs
2. Increase physical activity
-same energy in but greater energy out @ just 200 kcals/day -> lose 1 lb in 2-3 weeks
Exercise -> greater muscle mass -> increase BMR Energy expenditure
Physical activity -> better maintain weight loss
60 min @ day -> lose BUT 60-90 min -> keep off
-Watch serving size
-Cut down on high calorie foods
-Balance intake with exercise