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48 terms

Renaissance and Reformation

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Humanism
based on the study of the classics (classical Greece and Rome); this was the idea of focusing on the HUMAN and individualism; their achievements and themselves; but here this was grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy and history were the humanities study; lead to liberal arts
Secularism
not religion but THIS WORLD; worldy focus vs godly focus; seen through Boccaccio Decameron and their people centered artwork
Individualism
same as humanism and secularism in the way that it focuses on the INDIVIDUAL, their work and achievements and aren't focused on heaven rather themselves
Idealism
was usually referring to a type of art style which was focused on the IDEAL figure = godly, no expression, no blemish, perfect
Classicalism
refers to italy returning to classical greece and rome ideas; focusing on the classics
Realism
opposite of idealism, more realistic with blemishes and stuff; also had more realistic look with 3-d emerging in artstyle
Black Death
rats came from boats from trade routes (international rates) and they carried different and new diseases that infected the people in cities which led to depopulation and a loss of belief in God; created the money system because the feudal and farming system couldn't handle it and led to Boccaccio Decameron's collection of 100 stones of people's stories
Avignon Papacy
period in time when seven popes resided in avignon
Great Schism
1054 between Church of England and Roman Catholic Church
Medici Family
started when Cosimo de Medici took control of the city and their welathy family ran the government from behind the scenes but with economic problems came blame to the Medicis and so they had to turn florence over to Savonarola the new leader but when people grew tired of him they followed the Medici family again
Patriarch
has been called the father of Italian Renaissance humanism, did the most to foster humanism in the intellectual manner of humanities studies
Marsilio Ficino
..., Founded the Platonic Academy at the behest of Cosimo de' Medici in the 1460s. Translated Plato's works into Latin, giving modern Europeans access to these works for the fist time.
Platonic Academy
school founded by plato, aristotle studied here
Pico Della Mirandola
wrote the book called the horation on the dignity of man; renaissance work that exemplifies the values of humanism
Leon Baptista Alberti (On the Family)
high reguard for human worth and realization of what individuals could achieve and it created a new social ideal
Baldassare Castiglione (Book of the Courtier)
expressed characteristics of a perfect Renaissance noble (character, grace, talent, be a warrior, education, arts, follow standard of conduct, serve prince in effective and honest way)
Niccolo Machiavelli (The Prince)
thesis about how to acquire and maintain political power and he rejected idea that ruler should be christian like and thought morality had little to do with politics; based on understanding of self-centeredness of humans; had huge influence on upcoming leaders
Masaccio
made the first masterpieces of Early Renaissance; made a "fresco" type painting with fresh wet plaster and water based paints and he gave them depth and 3d look; introduced the realistic style
Donatello
made stunning advances in sculture and architecture and he studied Greeks and Romans; made realistic figure of Saint George
Botticelli
famous italian painter, painted adoration of the magi
Leonardo da Vinci
painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, mathematician; brought many artistic techniques, made Mona Lisa and other very famous works as well as contributed to anatomy and many sculptors
Raphael
one of the best painters; made numerous madonnas and frescoes
Jan van Eyck
was among first to perfect technique of oil painting; used a wide variety of bright colors with fine details made Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
Albrecht Durer
greatly affected by Italians, made the Adoration of the Magi tried to achieve a standard of ideal beauty
Indulgences
realease from all or part of punishment for sin; would pay for these and pay to the church
Printing Press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
Martin Luther
a monk and professor; found out people not saved through good works but rather their faith in God and he became the chief teacher of the Protestant Reformation; posted 95 theses on church and he began to try for a definite break with Catholic Church so he called on German Princes to overthreow papacy; he was excommunicated; ultimately made a revolution and his followers became known as Lutheranism; rejects 5 of 7 sacraments (not baptism or communion), wants clergy to have family, wants bible in vernacular
Sola Fide, Sola Scriptura, Sola Gratia
only faith, scripture, and God,The five solas articulated five fundamental beliefs of the Protestant Reformation, pillars which the Reformers believed to be essentials of the Christian life and practice. All five implicitly rejected or countered the teachings of the then-dominant Catholic Church, which had in the reformers' mind usurped divine attributes or qualities for the Church and its hierarchy, especially its head, the pope. Sola scriptura = by scripture alone. Sola Fide = by faith alone. Sola Gratia = by grace alone. Solo Christo = through Christ alone. Sola Deo Gloria = glory to God alone
Peace of Augsburg
ended the religious warfare in Germany in 1555 which accepted the division of Christianity in Germany but subjects could still not choose their own religion
Erasmus of Rotterdam
best known Christian humanist; called view of religion "the philosophy of Christ" meaning Christianity should show people how to live good lives on a daily basis; wanted to spread philosophy, provide education, and critisize the abuses in the church in his work The Praise of Folly 1509
John Calvin
published Institutes of the Christian Religion which was his masterpiece and made him a new leader of Protestantism; was super close to Luther but he also emphasized "power of grace, and glory of God" and predestination
Predestination
the idea that God had determined in advance who would be saved an who would be damned
Ulrich Zwingli
was a priest that introduced religious refomrs; abolished relics and images in church
Anabaptists
radical group who didnt like giving power to state in church affairs; believed in complete separation of church and state and they were persecuted; didn't like infant baptism
Henry VIII
wanted to divorce his wife so he changed religions to Church of England
Catholic Counter Reformation
Reformation Catholic Church mounted a series of reforms and reasserted its authority.
Ignatius of Loyola
founded Society of Jesus known as Jesuits and made a religious order by Pope Paul III in 1540 and they took a vow of absolute obedience to the pope and they liked to spread their message
Council of Trent
a group of cardinals, archbishops, bishopes, abbots and theologians that met for 18 years and made the final decree reaffirming traditional catholic teachings in opposition to protestant beliefs; faith and good works were BOTH necessary for salvation
Picture Plane
imaginary flat surface between the station point and the object being viewed
Linear Perspective
not flat, leads to realism, 3-D look also; kind of goes into distance, general depth demensions; art term
Aerial Perspective
gives a sense of atmosphere, making things in back look less clear and sharp to give a sense of demension; art term
Vanishing Point
farthest point you can see; gives the 3-D look (goes off into the distance); art term
Simultaneous Narrative
"tribute money" three different things going on in the same section
Orthogonals
lines that draw your eye to the vanishing point
Transversals
lines that run parallel to vanishing point
Contrapposto
classicism within Renaissance Stance common in Greek sculpture, relaxed pose, incorporation of classicism within a sculpture
Chiaroscuro
use of shading to create depth, light and dark to make depth
Foreshortening
when parts of body are drawn on 2d shorter than they actually are to make a 3d effect, truncating of human anatomy to give sense of realist human proportions