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Chapter 20 and Chapter 24
Terms in this set (65)
What do bats use to locate prey?
What do most bats prey on?
The gradual change in a species over time
Who was the first person to propose evolution?
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck -Why is he not credited with being the "father of evolution"?
Because even though he presented strong evidence of it first, his ideas about how it occured were not convincing enough.
evolution occurs via what process primarily?
3 propositions of Darwin's Theory
*Species are immutable
*Divergent species share a common ancestor and have diverged from one another (decent from modification)
*Changes in species over time can be explained by natural selection
The increased survival and reproduction of some individuals compared with others, based on differences in their traits.
What exactly undergoes evolution.... Individuals, populations or communities?
four basic processes of evolution.
Mutations give rise to new
The sum of all the alleles in a population
When a favored trait is spread through a population by natural selection.
Random changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next are referred to as
What is it called when a large population is suddenly reduced to a smaller population
What is it called when a small population colonizes a new area and becomes a larger population?
who proposed the conditions which must prevail in order for the genetic structure of a population to remain constant over time?
Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg
Hardy and Weinberg model conditions
No selection among genotypes
No gene flow
Population size is infinite
Mating is random
The reproductive contribution of a phenotype to subsequent generations relative to the contributions of other phenotypes is referred to as its
The fitness of a phenotype is influenced by the relative rates of
Traits which are influenced by alleles at a single locus are called
Traits which are influenced by alleles at more than one locus are called
If the average individuals are favored over individuals at the far extremes
If individuals at one extreme or the other are favored over the average individuals,
If individuals at both extremes are favored over the average individuals
disruptive selection example
bill sizes in black-bellied seedcrackers
directional selection example
stabilizing selection example
Human birth weight
An allele which arises via a mutation and does not contribute to the fitness of the organism
Neutral alleles contribute to
The shuffling of alleles from parent to offspring is referred to as
What are the three disadvantages of sex?
Recombination breaks up adaptive combinations of genes
Sex reduces the rate at which females pass genes on to their offspring
Dividing offspring into separate sexes greatly reduces the overall reproductive rate.
What are the other 3 advantages of sex
Sexual recombination facilitates repair of damaged DNA
Sexual reproduction permits the elimination of deleterious mutations
Sexual recombination generates new combinations of alleles on which natural selection can act.
The right mouthed P. microlepis and the left mouthed P. microlepis are examples of
two variants of a character within a population.
Clinal variation example
clover populations producing cyanide
What technique have scientists developed to date rocks?
How old is the Earth?
4.6 billion years old
How long has life existed on Earth?
3.8 billion years
What type of organisms first inhabited Earth?
Photosynthetic organisms arose about how many years ago?
3.4 billion years
what period did plants and animals colonize land?
what period did the first insects and amphibians appear?
what period did the first reptiles appear?
what period did the first mammals appear?
What period did humans exist in?
Fossils are found in what type of rocks?
Nicolaus Steno (1638-1686)
determined that the lower levels of sedimentary rock are older
Principles of Stratigraphy
*Fossils of similar organisms are found in widely separated places on Earth.
*Certain fossils are always found in younger strata, and certain other fossils are always found in older strata.
*Organisms found in younger strata are more similar to modern organisms than those found in older strata.
length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
When radioisotopes "breakdown"
Model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
Earth's history into four eons
Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic
Which eon is characterized by no life on Earth?
Which eon is characterized by the diversification of multicellular organisms?
Which eon is characterized by the diversification of prokaryotic organisms and the first eukaryotic fossils
Which eon is characterized by the appearance of photosynthetic organisms at its end?
How many mass extinctions have there been?
the largest mass extinction occurred at the end of what period?
Who proposed continental drift?
The collision of plates can lead to
Approximately 225 million years ago, the continents on Earth were one and called
What element is associated with this meteor and abundant in the rock layers
Which organisms were the first photosynthetic organisms?
The elevation of atmospheric oxygen by cyanobacteria led to the evolution of what type of reactions for the synthesis of ATP
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