The United Kingdom (complete) from: Building better texts (BBT)

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Great Britain is the largest of the British isles.
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Terms in this set (105)
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy.konstitutionelle MonarchieThe king or queen is head of state, the ability to make and pass legislation, however, resides with an elected parliament.Staatsoberhaupt; Gesetze verabschieden; jedoch; bei ... liegen; gewĂ€hltes ParlamentParliament consists of two chambers, the House of Commons (or: the Commons) and the House of Lords (or: the Lords).bestehen aus; Kammern; Unterhaus; OberhausThe Houses of Parliament are the buildings in London where the House of Commons and House of Lords assemble.zusammentretenSeparate elections are held for these political bodies.Wahlen werden abgehalten; Institutionen, GremienThe Houses of Pariament are located in the centre London; on the banks of the Thames. They are also known as the Palace of Westminster.befinden sich; Ufer; auch bekannt sein alsGeneral elections must be held least every five years.Parlamentswahlen; abgehalten werdenThe Prime Minister decides on the date of the electionsPremierminister/inThe monarch dissolves Parliament before general election.Monarch/in; auflösenThe House of Commons consists of 650 Members of Parliament (MPs) from areas across England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and each MP represents one constituency.Parlamentsabgeordnete im Unterhaus; vertreten, reprĂ€sentieren; WahlkreisThe House Commons makes the laws of the land and controls the work the government.allgemein gĂŒltige Gesetze; RegierungIn addition, there is a Parliament in Scotland, National Assembly in Wales and National Assembly in Northern Ireland with powers on a regional level.außerdem; Nationalversammlung Entscheidungskompetenz; regionale Ebene;Devolution is the act of giving limited powers from the central government in London to regional ones in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.Dezentralisierung; eingeschrĂ€nkte BefugnisseDevolution was initiated in 1997.beginnenIn contrast to Germany, Britain's electoral system is a majority vote system.Wahlsystem; Mehrheitswahlrechtevery MP is elected directly.direkt gewĂ€hltconstituencyWahlkreisthe winner of a constituency is the candidate who is first past the post.(als erster am Ziel) die meisten Stimmen erhaltenThe House Lords consists of about 800 non-elected members.nicht gewĂ€hlte MitgliederThe House of Lords examines and revises bills.Gesetzesvorlagen ĂŒberarbeitenThe House of Lords questions Government Ministers in the Chamber to find out what they are doing, or propose to do, on any subject.befragen; beabsichtigen; jedes beliebige ThemaThe Cabinet determines government policies.RegierungspolitikThe Cabinet composed of some twenty ministers, among them the Prime Minister, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Foreign Secretary and the Education Secretary.setzt sich zusammen; Finanzminister/in; Außenministerfin; Erziehungsminister/inThe two major political parties are the Conservative Party (or: the Conservatives) and Labour Party (or: Labour).politische Partei; die Conservative Party; die Labour PartyThe monarch's role is mainly representative.reprĂ€sentativThe monarch's role mostly symbolic.symbolischThe monarch represents Britain on state visits and on ceremonial occasionsStaatsbesuche; feierliche offizielle AnlĂ€sseThe monarch and the Prime Minister meet every week when Parliament is sitting to discuss current affairs and to give each other advice if necessaryaktuelle Angelegenheiten; beratenThe monarch opens every new session of Parliament.eröffnen; parlamentarische SitzungsperiodeThe royal family attracts a lot of popular interest.öffentliches InteresseThe royal family attracts a following all over the world and international media coverage.AnhĂ€ngerschaft; BerichterstattungAccording to critics, being represented by a royal family costs the taxpayers more than being represented by an elected head of state would.laut, gemĂ€ĂŸ; Steuerzahler; gewĂ€hltIn a modern democracy the people should have the opportunity to elect their head state, and every citizen should have the right to run for that office.(Staats)BĂŒrger/in; fĂŒr ein Amt kandidierenSupporters of the monarchy, on the other hand, maintain that the glamour accompanying royal families attracts huge numbers tourists.UnterstĂŒtzer; behaupten; begleiten; riesigSupporters of the monarchy indicate that the monarch is not involved in disagreements of political parties, which enables the monarch to act as a non-partisan intermediary.auf etwas hinweisen; verwickelt; Meinungsverschiedenheiten; befĂ€higen; unparteiischer VermittlerThe beginnings of the Empire date back to the 16th century when British colonialism pursued economic interests in North America.zurĂŒckgehen auf; verfolgenBritain was interested in colonies that would offer cheap raw materials and convenient markets for British goods.(an)bieten; Rohmaterialien; bequem; WarenFor that reason trading companies like the East India Company (established in 1600) were endowed with the right to settle in overseas countries with land grands.Handelsgesellschaften; gegrĂŒndet; ausgestattet sein; siedeln; Übersee; LandĂŒbereignungIn the first phase of the British Empire (17th to 18th century) the most important colonies, in economic terms, were in North America and the Caribbean. The colonialisation of Australia, which started out as a penal colony, also took place in the first phase.Karibik (Jamaika) Kolonialisierung; beginnen; Strafkolonie; stattfindenThe first phase of the British Empire came to an end after the loss of the Northem American colonies, which became independent in 1783, after the American War of Independence.Verlust; unabhāngig; UnabhĂ€ngigkeitIn the first phase the British Empire was to a large extent based on the slave trade.in großem Ausmaß; SklavenhandelUntil the abolition of the slave trade in Britain in 1807, Africans were tansported to the Americas as slaves and cheap labour force.Abschaffung; billige ArbeitskrĂ€fteThe second phase the British Empire was marked by the shift from mainly economic interests to imperialist thinking in terms of an extension of British rule over large territories to gain strategic, economic, political and military advantages.gekennzeichnet sein von/ durch; Wechsel, Verschiebung; was etw. angeht; Ausweitung; Herrschaft; GebieteIn the 18th and 19th century Britain took possession of Australia, India, Ceylon, Burma, Malaysia, Hong Kong and big parts the African continent.in Besitz nehmenThe British Empire was at its greatest at the beginning of the 20th century, when it included approximately 20% of the world's land surface and more than a quarter of the world's population.Jahrhundert; ungefĂ€hr; LandoberflĂ€che; ViertelThe British Empire was referred to as "the empire on which the sun never sets".bezeichnet, genannt; untergehen (Sonne)The British Empire global power.WeltmachtThe British Empire was the largest and the most extensive empire of all time.Reich; ausgedehntThe British Empire encompassed different times large areas of North America, Australia, Africa and Asia.umfassenBiological, cultural and religious reasons were given as justifications for Britain to conquer and rule other countries by force: eg. "Inferior races" Asians, Africans and others should be ruled by "superior races" white Europeans.Rechtfertigungen, ErklĂ€rungen; erobern; regieren; minderwertig, untergeordnet; ĂŒberlegen, ĂŒbergeordnetBritain brings civilization to uncivilized parts of the world.Zivilisation; unzivilisiertIndigenous people in other parts of the world should be converted to Christianity. without any respect for local cultures and religious beliefs,einheimisch; bekehren; Christentum (religiöse) ÜberzeugungenCritics regard these reasons now as mere myths or pretexts.betrachten/ansehen; als bloß; VorwandAfter World War Two the British Empire disintegrated when first India and then colony after colony demanded self-government and sovereignty.zerfallen; sich auflösen; fordern; SelbstverwaltungAfter World War Two Britain had to concentrate its domestic problems and at that point of time did not have the military or economic strength to counteract the anti-colonial nationalist movements and dissatisfaction with British rule in most of the colonies.innenpolitisch; StĂ€rke; entgegenwirken; UnzufriedenheitBritain's relationship with most its former colonies did not end with their independence the independent states became members of the Commonwealth.ehemalig; StaatenThe Commonwealth is voluntary association of 52 countries.freiwillig; ZusammenschlussThe Commonwealth is home roughly one third the world's population.WeltbevölkerungThe Commonwealth recognizes the British monarch as the symbolic head of the organisation and 16 countries recognize the British monarch as their head of state.anerkennenThe Commonwealth member states agreed to promote democracy, human rights and an understanding among nations. fights poverty and exploitation of natural resources around the globe.fördern; Menschenrechte; VerstĂ€ndigung;The Commonwealth fights poverty and exploitation of natural resources around the globe.Armut; Ausbeutung BodenschĂ€tzeCritics of the Commonwealth point out that not all its member countries adhere to the high ideals postulated in the Harare Commonwealth Declaration (1991).hinweisen; sich an etw. halten, vertreten; fordern;Critics of the Commonwealth point out that dictatorships are not automatically excluded from the Commonwealth and there have been violations of human rights in some of the member countries.Diktatur; ausgeschlossen; Verletzungen, VerstĂ¶ĂŸeCritics of the Commonvealth point out that it has no immediate political influence or power, and describe it as merely a talking shop.unmittelbar; nur, bloß; Gruppe von Leuten, die nicht handeln, nur redenStill, the Commonwealth has some global importance as it grants small countries access to an international political network which also includes more influential countries.trotzdem; gewĂ€hren; einflussreichStill, the Commonwealth has some global importance as it encourages developing members to improve their standard of democracy, rights and governance.ermutigen; Mitgliedsstaaten, die EntwicklungslĂ€nder sind; verbessern; AmtsfĂŒhrungIn total, non-white ethnic minority groups represent about 15 % of the UK population.insgesamt; ausmachenNon-white ethnic groups are concentrated in certain areas of the UK. For instance, about 45 % live in London.Volksgruppe, ethnische Gruppe; bestimmte GegendenNon-white ethnic groups make up about a third of all London and Leicester residents.ausmachen; AnsĂ€ssige/r, BewohnerAt the end of the Second World War it quickly became apparent that the reconstruction of the British economy required a large influx of immigrant labour.offensichtlich; Wiederaufbau; erfordern; ZustromAt the end of Second World War the appeal for new workers was at first aimed at white Europeans and many refugees from the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, Irish and Italian labourers and others came to the UK, but it was not enough to meet the need.Aufruf; richten an; FlĂŒchtlinge; Bedarf abdeckenAt the end the Second World War the British Nationality Act of 1948 gave all Empire and Commonwealth citizens unhindered rights to enter Britain because they carried a British passport.ungehindertIn the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s large numbers of immigrants from outside Europe, mainly from the Caribbean and from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, were attracted to work and settle in the UK.hauptsĂ€chlich; sich ansiedeln, niederlassenThe fall of the Berlin Wall 1585 and the breakup of the Soviet Union, together with conficts in the former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, led to an increased number of people seeking asylum the UK.Auseinanderbrechen; gestiegene Anzahl; Asyl suchenIn the decade previous to the global recession in 2007/ 2008, the UK economy enjoyed high growth, low unemployment rates and a considerable number of job vacancies.Jahrzehnt; vorangehend; KonjunkturrĂŒckgang; Arbeitslosenraten; freie ArbeitsstellenWhen eight Eastern European countries joined the EU in 2004, the booming UK economy was an attractive destination to many of the new EU citizens.beitreten; florierend, boomend; (Reise)ZielBy the end of 2008, Polish nationals became the largest foreign-national group in the UK while the majority of immigrants still come from Commonwealth countries and usually have British citizenship.bis; Staatsangehörige/r; auslĂ€ndischer Staatsangehöriger; StaatsbĂŒrgerschaftThe UK joined the European Union in 1973 after it had been prevented from joining the European Economic Community (EEC) twice because France vetoed Britain's application both in 1963 and in 1967.an etw. gehindert werden; Einspruch einlegen; Bewerbung, AntragThe former French President de Gaulle vetoed the application claiming that the strong bonds between the UK and both the USA and the Commonwealth could interfere with the UK's involvement in European politics.ehemalig; behaupten; Verbindungen; sowohl ... als auch...; beeintrĂ€chtigen; EngagementThe EU is an economic and political partnership, which started after World War Two to promote economic cooperation.Partnerschaft; fördern; ZusammenarbeitAn important aim was to prevent further military conflicts and it seemed likely that countries which trade together tend to avoid going to war with each other.verhindern; wahrscheinlich; Ziel; Handel treiben; neigen zu; vermeidenMeanwhile, the EU has become a single market, which means that goods and people can move around freely without tariffs on goods or visa requirements for people.inzwischen; Binnenmarkt; sich frei umher bewegen; ZollgebĂŒhrenMeanwhile, the EU has its own currency, the euro.WĂ€hrungThe word Brexit has become shorthand for the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union (EU), combining the words Britain and exit.AbkĂŒrzung; RĂŒckzug; verschmelzen; AustrittA referendum was held in June 2016, to decide whether the UK should leave or remain in the European Union.Volksbefragung; austreten; bleibenA majority of 52% voted for LeaveMehrheit; stimmen, wĂ€hlen48% of the voters opted for Remain.sich etw. entscheidenThe Leave campaign argued that the EU membership required high payments for little in return.Kampagne der AustrittsbefĂŒrworter; argumentieren; Mitgliedschaft; erfordern; ZahlungThe Leave campaign argued that the EU imposed too many rules on business.auferlegenLeave campaign argued that the the UK ceded sovereignty and control to the EU, e.g. in matters of border control, which in turn led high levels of immigration.etw, abtreten an jmdn. staatl. Selbstbestimmung Grenze; wiederum Rate, NiveauThe rising number of immigrants triggered concerns about the impact this would have on British society, its national and cultural identity.auslösen; Bedenken; AuswirkungThose who campaigned for Britain to remain in the EU claimed that having access to a big single market makes selling British products much easier and therefore boosts the British economy.kĂ€mpfen;sich engagieren; bleiben; behaupten; ansteigen lassen, verstĂ€rkenThose who campaigned Britain to remain the EU claimed that remaining within the EU would allow Britain to shape the single market of the EU.erlauben; formen, gestaltenThose who campaigned for Britain to remain the EU claimed that many of the problems which Britain will have to face in the future are cross-border, for example climate change, international crime and terrorism.sich einer Sache stellen; grenzĂŒberschreitendMost of the immigrants from the EU are young and eager to work and therefore expected to fuel economic growth and to help to pay for public services.eifrig bemĂŒht / begierig sein etw. zu tun; fördern; Wachstum; öffentliche Dienstleistungen