Biology Chapter 1

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Systemic anatomystudies the anatomy of each body systemRegional anatomyexamines the structures in a body regionSurface anatomythe study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surfaceComparative anatomythe study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different speciesEmbryologystudies developmental changes from conception to birthPhysiologists examinethe function of body structures, focusing on the molecular and cellular levelCardiovascular physiologyexamines the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and bloodNeurophysiologystudies functioning of nerves and nervous system organsRespiratory physiologyexplores functioning of respiratory organsReproductive physiologythe functioning of reproductive hormones and the reproductive cyclePathophysiologyfocuses on the function of a body system during disease or injury to the systemHow might knowledge of surface anatomy be important for a health-care worker during CPR?So they know where to press when compressing the chest. Knowing the location of the heart is important.---- physiology examines how the heart, blood vessels, and blood function.Cardiovascular.What is the relationship between anatomy and physiology?-anatomy studies the physical structure of the body and physiology studies the function of different body parts - Form and function are interrelatedExplain how the studies of form and function are can't fully describe or understand the anatomic form of an organ without knowing the organ's function too. Form follows function (anatomical structures are designed to perform their specific function)Compare and contrast how anatomists and physiologists specifically describe the small intestine.Anatomists focus on the formation and structure of the small intestine. They examine the cells and tissues that form the small intestine, and describe the layers of the small intestinal wall. Physiologists focus on the function of the small intestine. They examine how the muscle of the smooth intestine propels food through the digestive tract and describe the process by which nutrients are broken down and absorbed. Both anatomists and physiologists know that form and function of the small intestine are interrelated.OrganizationAll organisms exhibit a complex structure and orderMetabolismthe sum of all chemical reactions that occur within the bodyAnabolismsmall molecules joined to form larger onesCatabolismlarge molecules broken down into smaller onesGrowth and developmentOrganisms assimilate materials from environment; grow and developResponsivenessability to sense and react to stimuliRegulation- Ability to adjust internal bodily function to accommodate environment changes - Homeostasis—ability to maintain body structure and functionReproduction- Produce new cells for growth, maintenance, and repair - With sex cells (gametes), can develop into new organismsLevels of organization from simplest to most complex:Chemical level - atoms and molecules Cellular level - cells, basic units of life Tissue level - similar cells performing common functions Organ level - multiple tissues working together Organ system level - related organs work together Organismal level - organ systems function together11 organ systems of the human body1. Integumentary 2. Skeletal 3. Muscular 4. Nervous 5. Endocrine 6. Cardiovascular 7. Lymphatic 8. Respiratory 9. Digestive 10. Urinary 11. ReproductiveIntegumentary systemprovides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors, synthesizes vitamin D, prevents water loss consists of - hair, skin, and toenailsskeletal systemProvides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), stores calcium and phosphorus, provides sites for ligament and muscle attachment consists of - skull - upper and lower limb bones - sternum - ribcage -cartilage - vertebrae (spine) - sacrum - knee jointMuscular Systemprovides body movement, generates heat when muscles contract consists of - pectoral muscle - abs - tendons (ex. lines in wrist) - sartorius muscle ( long muscle located in the front of your thigh)nervous systemA regulatory system that controls muscles and some glands, responds to sensory stimuli, helps control all other systems of the body, responsible for consciousness, memory, and intelligence consists of - eye - brain - spinal cord - peripheral nervous systemendocrine system- Consists of glands and cell clusters that control many of the body's activities by producing hormones.( some regulate growth, development, and metabolism) - maintain homeostasis of blood composition and volume - control digestive process and reproductive functions consists of - hypothalamus, pineal and pituitary glad - thyroid gland - thymus - adrenal glands - pancreas - kidney - testes and ovariescardiovascular systemheart and blood vessels the heart moves blood through blood vessels to distribute hormones, nutrients, gasses, and to pick up waste products consists of - heart - blood vesselslymphatic systemtransports and filters lymph (a colorless fluid containing white blood cells, which bathes the tissues and drains through the lymphatic) and participates in immune response. Provides defense against infection. consists of -tonsils - thymus -spleen -cervical, axillary, inguinal, popliteal lymph nodesrespiratory systemresponsible for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and the air in the lungs consists of - nose and nasal cavity - throat - trachea - lungs - larynx (voice box)urinary systemCleanses the blood. Rids the body of wastes. Maintains salt and water balance. Expels urine from body consists of - kidney - ureter - urinary bladder - urethradigestive systemmechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste products consists of - salivary gland - mouth - throat - esophagus - liver - stomach - small and larger instestinemale reproductive systemserves to produce sperm and male hormones ( testosterone) and introduce them into the female body consists of - ductus dereferens - prostate gland - urethra - epididymis - testes - penis - seminal vessel - scrotumfemale reproductive systemproduces female sex cells (oocyte) and female hormones (e.g. estrogen and progesterone); receives sperm from male; site of fertilization of an oocyte; site of growth and development of an embryo and fetus. produces breast milk consists of - mammary glands - ovary - uterus - uterine tube - vagina - external genitalia ( clitoris, labia)What does it mean if an organism is "responsive," and how does this characteristic relate to the survival of this organism?Responsiveness is the ability to sense and react to stimuli. The ability to make changes in response to the environment is crucial for survival.Does a higher level of organization contain all the levels beneath it? Explain.Each level of organization is a function of the arrangement of its subsequent subunits, which are in turn a function of the organization of their subunits.Which organ system is responsible for filtering the blood and removing the waste products of the blood in the form of urine?the urinary systemCharacteristics of anatomic positionUpright stance Feet parallel and flat on the floor Upper limbs at the sides of the body Palms face anteriorly (toward the front) Head is level Eyes look forwardSectionactual cut or slice that exposes internal anatomyPlaneimaginary flat surface passing through body; 3 types sagittal, coronal and transverse.Coronal (or frontal) planeVertical (up and down) plane dividing the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) partsTransverse (or cross-sectional) planeHorizontal (across) plane dividing the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) partsMidsagittal (or median) planeVertical (up and down) plane dividing the body into equal left and right halvessagittal planea vertical (up and down) plane that divides the body into right and left partsOblique planepasses through the body at an angleAxial regionHead, neck, and trunk Forms the main vertical axis of the bodyAppendicular regionUpper and lower limbsPosterior aspect- Completely encased in bone - Physically and developmentally distinct from ventral cavities - Cranial cavity (endocranium) is formed by bones of the cranium (Houses the brain) - Vertebral canal is formed by the bones of the vertebral column (Houses the spinal cord)Ventral cavityLarger than posterior cavity Anteriorly placed in the body Does not completely encase organs in bone Partitioned into a Superior thoracic cavity Inferior abdominopelvic cavityanteriorfront of the body ex. the stomach is anterior to the spinal cordposteriorback of body ex. the heart is posterior to the sternumdorsaltoward the backside of the body ex. the spinal cord is on the dorsal side of the bodyventralToward the belly side of the human body ex. the belly button is on the ventral side of the bodysuperiorcloser to the head ex. the chest is superior to the pelvisinferiorcloser to the feet ex. the stomach is inferior to the heartcranialtoward the head ex. shoulders are cranial to the feetcaudaltowards the rear or tail end ex. the buttocks are caudal to the headRostraltoward the nose or mouth ex. the front lobe of the brain is rostral to the back of the headmedialToward the midline of the body ex. the lungs are medial lto the shoulderslateralaway from the midline ex. the arms are lateral to the heartIpsilateralsame side ex. right are is ipsilateral to the right legContralateralopposite side ex. the left arm is contralateral to the right legdeepcloser to the inside of the bodysuperficialcloser to the outside of the bodyproximalCloser to the point of attachment ex. the elbow is proximal to the handdistalaway from the point of attachment ex. the wrist is distal to the elbowserous membranesLine body cavities that lack openings to the outsideParietal layerlines the internal surface of the body wallVisceral layercovers organSerous cavityspace between membranesSerous fluidLiquid secreted by cells in serous membrane lubricates the organs and allows them glide without frictionMediastinumspace between the lungs median space in the thoracic cavity Contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels that connect to the heartPericardiumtwo-layered serous membrane - membrane surrounding the heartParietal pericardiumOuter layer, which forms the sac around the heartVisceral pericardiumForms the heart's external surfacePericardial cavitySpace between parietal and visceral layers containing serous fluidPleuratwo-layered serous membrane associated with lungsParietal pleuraOuter layer lines internal surface of thoracic wallVisceral pleuraInner layer covers external surface of lungsPleural cavitySpace between parietal and visceral layers containing serous fluidAbdominal cavitySuperior area Contains most of the digestive system organs, kidneys, and most of the uretersPelvic cavityInferior area, between hip bones Contains distal part of large intestine, remainder of ureters and urinary bladder, and internal reproductive organsPeritoneummembrane that lines the abdominal cavityParietal peritoneumthe outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wallVisceral peritoneumthe inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavityPeritoneal cavityPotential space between parietal and visceral layers containing serous fluidWhat type of plane would separate the nose and mouth into superior and inferior structures?transverse planeWhich directional term would be most appropriate in the sentence "The elbow is _____________ to the wrist"?proximalThe term antebrachial refers to which body region?forearmWhich body cavity is associated with the lungs, and what are the names of its serous membranes?the mediastinum is referred to as the pericardium, the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs is referred to as the pleura, and that lining the abdominopelvic cavity and the viscera is referred to as the peritoneum.If a physician makes an incision into the abdomen along the midsagittal plane, superior to the umbilicus and just inferior to the thoracic diaphragm, then the skin of the __________ abdominopelvic region has been incised.The epigastric regionUmbilical regionMiddle region, named for the umbilicus (navel) that lies in its centerEpigastric regionsuperior (above) to the umbilical regionHypogastric regioninferior (below) to the umbilical regionRight and left hypochondriac regionscovered by the lower ribs, below the ribs Inferior ( below) to costal cartilages and lateral (next to/ on the side of) the epigastricRight and left lumbar regionsLateral to umbilical - side by side umbilical regionRight and left iliac regionslocated over the hip bones Lateral (on the left and right of) the hypogastricReceptordetects changes in a variableStimuluschange in temperature sensed by skinControl centerinterprets input from receptor and initiates changes through effector Nervous system can provide a quicker response E.g., regulation of blood pressure upon rising Endocrine response is more sustained E.g., parathyroid hormone regulating calcium levelsEffectoris the structure that brings about changes to alter the stimulusNegative feedback-Controls most processes in the body -Variable fluctuates within a normal range around a set point -Resulting action is in the opposite direction of the stimulus Example: temperature regulationPositive feedbackOccurs much less frequently than negative feedback Stimulus reinforced to continue moving variable in same direction until a climactic event occurs, then body returns to homeostasis Examples: Breastfeeding Blood clotting LaborList and describe the three components of a homeostatic system, and give examples of each in the human body.The receptor detects changes in the variable. The control center interprets input & initiates changes through the effect, which brings about changes to alter the stimulus.On a cold day, what are some of the strategies the body uses to conserve heat?Constriction of blood vessels in the skin, shivering, and goosebumpsWhat is the main difference between a homeostatic system regulated by negative feedback and one regulated by positive feedback?positive feedback amplifies change while negative feedback reduces change. This means that positive feedback will result in more of a product: more apples, more contractions, or more clotting plateletsNormal ranges for homeostatic variablBody temperature 98.6°F Blood glucose 80-110 mg/dL Blood pressure 90-120/60-80 mm HgDiabetes is an example of homeostatic imbalanceOccurs when homeostatic mechanisms for regulating blood glucose are not functioning normally Blood glucose fluctuations and high glucose readings