Friends Seminary APUSH unit 3
Terms in this set (45)
Principal author of the Declaration of Independence. Represented Virginia in Continental Congress. One of the Founding Fathers.
An author, scientist, politician, and diplomat. One of the Founding Fathers.
American Founding Father (took part in Declaration and Constitution). Delegate from Massachusetts. Second President of the United States.
American Founding Father. Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. The first President of the United States.
American Founding Father. Leader of Anti-federalists, fearing the constitution would endanger the rights of the States.
John Adams's wife. Wrote letters to her husband, discussing government and politics.
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution, which failed miserably and was eventually discarded. Did not give government right to tax or raise money. Difficult to pass laws and amendments.
Signer of Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, and Constitution. Served as Superintendent of Finance from 1841 to 1844.
Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776
The first state constitution written following the signing of the Declaration of Independence. was described as the most democratic in America. It was drafted by Robert Whitehill Timothy Matlack, Dr. Thomas Young, George Bryan, James Cannon, and Benjamin Franklin.
Lexington & Concord
The English dispatched troops to confiscate weapons in Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775. The troops had to first pass through Lexington, where an American minuteman fired a shot, which drew British return fire. When the Battle of Americans suffered 18 casualties, including eight dead. The British proceeded to Concord, where a much larger contingent of minutemen awaited them. The Massachusetts militia caused the British to suffer major losses and forced them to retreat. Battle of Concord is sometimes referred to as "the shot heard 'round the world," as it was monumental that a contingent of militiamen could overcome a trained army.
Generally regarded as a turning point in the war. British general John Burgoyne won a small tactical victory over the Continental Army on September 19, 1777 but lost on October 7, 1777. This American victory was made possible by the amount of time the British took in taking Philadelphia, giving the Americans time to prepare their defenses. Burgoyne was surrounded at Saratoga, forcing him to surrender on October 17. News of Burgoyne's surrender was instrumental in formally bringing France into the war as an American ally, although it had previously given supplies, ammunition and guns, notably the de Valliere cannon, which played an important role in Saratoga.
British general Cornwallis retreated to New York and fortified Yorktown, but an American naval fleet defeated a British fleet that was being sent to reinforce Cornwallis; he was surrounded and surrendered on October 19, 1781. This caused Lord North's ministry to fall in London.
France formally recognized the United States on February 6, 1778, with the signing of the Treaty of Alliance. Conditions of treaty: 1) neither nation could negotiate peace with Britain without consulting the other 2) France abandoned claim to Canada and territory east of Mississippi. France openly aided the Americans, and the British now had to focus on French in Caribbean as well.
a Scottish social philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment. Best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Cited as the father of modern economics and capitalism and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today.
Wealth of Nations
the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. First published in 1776, the book offers one of the world's first collected descriptions of what builds nations' wealth and is today a fundamental work in classical economics. Through reflection over the economics at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution the book touches upon broad topics as Division of labor, productivity and free markets.
A rebellion of 1500 armed farmers on the federal army at Springfield, MA. The rebellion was an attempt to take Boston from the federal government and was brought on by farmers' anger with not being able to pay the high taxes they were supposed to because, as war veterans, they were not given the money they were promised. The rebellion resulted in import duties being enacted and tax collections being eased.
... took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain. Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. isputes revolved around the composition and election of the Senate, how "proportional representation" was to be defined (whether to include slaves or other property), whether to divide the executive power between three persons or invest the power into a single president, how to elect the president, how long his term was to be and whether he could stand for reelection, what offenses should be impeachable, the nature of a fugitive slave clause, whether to allow the abolition of the slave trade, and whether judges should be chosen by the legislature or executive.
...supported a strong federal government with more power than states. Founder of the federalist party, delegate from New York at the Constitutional Convention.
...arrived at by Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton in 1791, was an arrangement that provided for the federal government to forgive all outstanding state debts in exchange for the relocation of the government seat from Philadelphia to its present site in Washington, D.C.
...a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. Farmers who used their grain in the form of whiskey as a medium of exchange were forced to pay a new tax. The tax was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to increase central government power, in particular to fund his policy of assuming the war debt of those states which had failed to pay. The farmers, who resisted, many war veterans, were fighting for the principles of the American Revolution, in particular against taxation without local representation
Report on Manufactures
...Written by Alexander Hamilton, presented to congress on December 5, 1791. recommended economic policies to stimulate the new republic's economy and ensure the independence won with the conclusion of the Revolutionary War in 1783. Reasoned that to secure American independence, the United States needed to have a sound policy of encouraging the growth of manufacturing with bounties or subsidies to industry and regulation of trade with moderate tariffs
Bank of the U.S.
...championed by Alexander Hamilton, a central bank established by congress on February 25, 1791. Establishment of the Bank was included in a three-part expansion of federal fiscal and monetary power
... the belief that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a creator
... term coined by John Quincy Adams, refers to the 1780s, a time right after the American Revolution where the future of the newly formed nation was in the balance. During this time, the newly independent former colonies were beset with a wide array of foreign and domestic problems
The Great Compromise was an agreement made among the delegates to the Constitutional Convention that the American government would have two houses in Congress: the Senate where each state has two Senators, and the House of Representatives where each state has a number of Representatives based on population.
The Great Compromise ended one of the most serious disagreements among the new states. Small states felt that all states were equal in stature and that if Congressional representation were based upon population, they would be outvoted on everything. Large states felt that populations should determine how many representatives a state should have, because they were afraid that they would be outvoted by the small states. This disagreement was preventing the Constitution from being adopted. In order to move forward on the Constitution, the states compromised and made Congress as a bicameral legislative body.
Without the Great Compromise, there might not be the Constitution or US Government as we know it today.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.
A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
Constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments, called states in the United States. The national and the subdivisional governments both exercise direct authority over individuals.
Separation of Powers
The structure of the government provided for in the Constitution where authority is divided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches; idea comes from Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws.
Strict/ Loose Constructionism
Loose constructionism is when the government can do or take certain actions that the constitution does not necessarily forbid. Strict constructionism is that the government can only did what the constitution specifically says.
The clause that gives congress the right and ability to stretch the meaning of laws based on the time period.
Judicial review is the doctrine that says all legislative and executive actions are subject are subject to review by the supreme court to see if they follow the constitution.
Checks and Balances
The system of checks and balances is established by the U.S government so that one person or group of people does not have too much power. An example of this is how laws are made. First congress or the senate introduces the bill, then after that the bill has to be signed into law by the president and after that the bill must pass judicial review by the supreme court.
Bill of Rights
The bill of rights is the name for the first ten amendments to the constitution. The bill of rights was made after a big push for it by the anti-federalists because they wanted a document which outlined the undeniable rights that the government could not restrict. examples of these are the right to free speech and the right the hold arms and the right to assemble.
The Federalists refer to the group of people that often butted heads with the Anti-federalists. The federalists strongly supported the ratification of the government and after seeing the failure of the articles of confederation felt that having a stronger central government was necessary for the country to function successfully.
These were the people who opposed a strong central government and later in 1787 opposed the ratification of the constitution. Some famous anti-federalist were Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams and James Monroe.
The delegated powers also known as the enumerated powers are the powers out lined in section eight article 1 of the constitution which clearly states the powers of congress. this powers include the power to declare war, raise taxes, regulate immigration, create lower courts, standardize currency, and establish a postal system.
Powers that the states and the federal government have in common. For example, both states and the federal government can make laws, build roads, and organize defense. Not explicitly laid out in the constitution, but possibly implied.
Powers that the Federal Government does not have. These are laid out in Article 1 Section 9. For example, the Federal Government was denied the power to end the slave trade before 1808.
In the case of the United States government, implied powers are the powers exercised by Congress which are not explicitly given by the constitution itself but necessary and proper to execute the powers which are. (wikipedia)
Power over issues that are not written about at the writing of the constitution (I think abortion is an example). The U.S government gives reserved powers to the states (which doesn't really make sense with the abortion example).
Laid out in article 5. Two thirds of both houses of Congress must approve a proposed amendment, and three-fourths of the states must then ratify it.
Article 2 describes the powers of the executive branch, which are vested in a President and include being Commander in Chief and appointing Supreme Court judges.
The legislative branch of Federal Government is the two houses of Congress; their powers are laid out in the first article of the constitution and include the power to collect taxes.
Article 3 describes the powers of the Judicial Branch, which are vested in the supreme court. The supreme court has jurisdiction in cases between different states, or citizens of different states.
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