Chapter 6A

Internet Technology
Internet Backbone
A network of high-capacity communications links that provide the main routes for data traffic across the Internet.
Network Service Providers (NSP)
Maintain backbone links and routers
Network Access Points (NAP)
Tie NSP equipment and links
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Company that offers Internet access to individuals, businesses, and smaller ISPs
Contains circuitry that converts the data-carrying signals from your computer to signals that can travel over various communications channels
Primary Protocol suite responsible for message transmission on the Internet
Protocol Suite
Combination of protocols that work together
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Breaks a message or file into packets
Internet Protocol (IP)
Responsible for addressing packets so that they can be routed to their destination
Static IP Address
Permanently assigned IP address
Dynamic IP Address
Temporarily assigned IP address
Always-on Connection
Linked to your ISP and is online whenever your computer and modem are one, even when you are not actively accessing the Internet
Domain Name
Shorter IP name, like
Top-level Domain
End of a domain name, like edu in
Domain Name System (DNS)
The database where every domain name corresponds to a unique IP address
Domain Name Server
Any computer that hosts the domain name system
A virtual device that allows a computer to perform more than one type of service
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
Global organization that coordinates technical managements of the Internet's Domain Name System
Time for data to make a round trip from point A to point B and back to point A
Sends a signal to a specific Internet address and waits for a reply
Records a packet's path in addition to its round trip speed
Upstream Speed
The rate of data that is transmitted from your computer to the internet
Downstream Speed
The rate of data arriving at your computer
Asymmetric Internet Connection
When upstream speeds differ from downstream speeds
Symmetric Internet Connection
When upstream and downstream speeds are the same
Fixed Internet access
Links your computer to an ISP from a stationary point, such as a wall socket or roof-mounted antenna
Portable Internet access
Allows you to easily move your access device
Mobile Internet access
Allows you to use the Internet while you are on the go