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Chapter 22 and 23 Study Guide

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If you were to move from around sea level to a much higher altitude, your body would respond with
develops capillaries, your red blood cell count goes up, lungs get stronger.
The reason animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is to
preform cellular respiration
A waste product of respiration is
CO2, H2O
The body structure where gas exchange occurs is called the
lung -> alveoli
Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must
live in wet or watery places
Which of the following is likely to have the lowest concentration of 02?
warm and salty water
The chief advantage of gas exchange in water is that
water can remove 80% of oxygen available instead of 25%
In the countercurrent exchange system of fish gills,
maintains a concentration gradient that favors oxygen diffusion, fluid move counter to eachother, and temperature regulation
Which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to its overall body size?
birds and mammals
Which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the
body?
alveoli-> branchioles-> bronchi-> trachea-> larynx-> pharynx-> nasal cavity
Which of the following is a function of the nasal cavities in humans?
filter, warm, humidify, sanple for odor
What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out of the lungs?
diaphragm
Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across
alveoli
The ________is a passageway shared by both food and air.
pharynx
Why do cigarette smokers cough more than nonsmokers?
The respiratory systems attempts to clean mucus no longer moved by cilia
Inhalation in humans is achieved by
The rib cage expands as muscle between the ribs contract
When you are breathing normally, exhalation results mainly from
relaxation of rib muscles and the diapragm
Compared to the vital capacity, how much air can lungs actually hold?
more than the vital capacity because there is always a left over portion of oxygen
When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to
breathe again?
increase in CO2 levels of blood and pH drops
What part of the human brain contains the primary breathing control center?
medulla oblangata and pons
Medullary breathing centers directly sense and respond to
the pH of the blood
Oxygen moves from blood into the interstitial fluid and then to body cells because
it diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to lower partial pressure
Oxygen is mostly transported through the body
by hemoglobin
Most C02 is transported to the lungs
by hemoglobin
What prompts a newborn baby to start to breathe?
the blood pH level falls due to a build up of CO2
Which of the following statements regarding circulatory systems is true?
it transports oxygen and CO2, distributes nutrients to cells, and conveys waste products of metabolism for disposal
Which of the following is a function of the circulatory system?
Carry oxygen from lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs there by aiding in the exchange of gases. Supply of oxygen is needed for proper functioning of the cells. Removal of carbon dioxide is also equally essentials it becomes toxic to cells when present in high amount.
The two basic types of circulatory systems that have evolved over time are
open and closed
Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart chambers?
fish
Which of the following animals has a three-chambered heart?
frogs, crocodiles, turtles, lizards, snakes
In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the________ just before entering the
right atrium.
superior vena cava
In mammals, which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lung back to the
heart?
pulmonary vein
Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the
pulmonary artery
Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs by the
right ventricle
From the left ventricle, oxygen-rich blood flows through the
aorta
The largest blood vessel in the human body is the
aorta
During which phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood?
diastole
The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle called the
SA (sinotrial) node
The main function of the AV node is to
relay and contract signals from a pacemaker, and delay the signal 0.1 seconds so the atria have contracted and emitted
Myocardial infarction, also called a heart attack,
is the damage/death of cardia muscle tissue because blood vessels from the heart get clogged
Which of the following is the cause of 40% of all deaths in the United States?
Cardiovascular disease
Arteries are distinguished from veins based on the following features
thicker connective tissue, higher blood pressure, and no valves present
Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls?
capillaries
In humans, which blood vessels have valves?
veins
Which of the following can contribute to high blood pressure?
cholesterol, genetics, smoking, alcohol, obesity, salt, and a lack of excercise
The diameter of a capillary is about the same as that of
a red blood cell
The liquid part of blood is called
plasma
Cells make up about what percentage of total blood volume?
45%
How long do human red blood cells circulate in the blood before they wear out and have to be
replaced?
3-4 months
An adult human's red blood cells are formed in the
bone marrow
The voice box is defined as?
larynx
A tube dorsal to the trachea is?
the esophagus
The smallest conducting passageways in the lungs are?
bronchioles
The air sacs within the lungs are?
alveoli
The heart chamber with the thickest wall is the?
left ventricle
Heart chamber that contains the sinoatrial node
right atrium
The four pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood to this chamber
right atrium
This chamber sends blood into the aorta
left ventricle