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Microbiology- Chapter 4
Terms in this set (34)
They size range for typical bacteria is
0.2micrometers wide x 2-8micrometers long
Genetic information is located where in prokaryotic cells?
plasmids & genome (single circular chromosomes)
Which structures are always found in all prokaryotic cells in Domain Bacteria?
nucleioid (genome), cell wall with peptidoglycan, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
Which structures are found ONLY in eukaryotic cells?
nucleus, linear chromosomes with histone proteins, membrane bound organelles
the cells have variability in shape and size
A nurse uses a sterile swab to collect a sample from a patient's wound. In the microbiology lab, microscopic examination of the sample reveals straight rods occurring in long chains of 8-10 bacteria. Which term would the microbiologist report for the patient's chart?
True or false: Glycocalyx and capsule are interchangeable terms and they are made of glycoproteins (polysaccharides and polypeptides)
Which structure is used by bacteria to exchange plasmid DNA between two cells?
The word peptidoglycan includes "peptide" and "glycan" - referring to the fact that this large molecule consists of what two primary components?
-peptide (protien) cross bridges and side chains
-a carbohydrate backbone (NAG and NAM)
What anchors the 25-40 layers of peptidoglycan to the cell membrane in Gram positive bacteria?
The toxic molecule present in the outer membrane of Gram negative cell walls is called
Gram negative cell walls differ from gram positive cell walls in which ways?
Lack of teichoic acid
Fewer Layers of peptidoglycan in Gram negative cell walls
Presence of an outer of outer membrane containing LPS
Patients infected with Gram negative bacteria must be treated carefully because killing most of the bacteria all at once releases large amounts of LPS toxin. This can harm the patient by causing which of the following? Mark all that apply.
possible death, excessively high fever, shock (decreased blood pressure leading to organ failure)
Bacteria in genus Mycoplasma are structurally unique from other members of Domain bacteria because they _____.
Have sterols in thier plasma membrane
Lack cell walls, therefore have no peptidoglycan
Which genus/genera of bacteria contain mycolic acid in their cell walls?
Norcardia and Mycobacterium
Acid fast bacteria cannot be viewed with the gram stain procedure because
the mycolic acid in their cell wall blocks the stains
Lysozyme is a naturally occurring enzyme present in several body secretions (and used in Lysol disinfectant spray) to protect against infectious bacteria. What does lysozyme do to the cell walls of Gram positive bacteria?
breaks bonds between NAG and NAM in the peptidoglycan carbohydrate backbone
True or false: Penicillin attacks the same part of peptidoglycan that is attacked by lysozyme.
Why are penicillin and lysozyme less effective against Gram negative bacteria? Mark all that apply.
Human cells are not affected by antibiotics that destroy cell walls because
human cells do not have a cell wall
The two most important structural differences between Gram positive amd Gram negative bacteria that affect the Gram stain procedure are (mark all that apply)
Cell membranes are said to be selectively permeable because ___ (mark all that apply).
Three requirements for a substance to pass directly through the phospholipid bilayer include _____ (mark all that apply).
(check all that apply)
Which of the following applies to all types of passive transport?
True or false: Only small, nonpolar molecules cross the membrane by passive transport.
True or false: Only small, nonpolar molecules can cross the membrane by simple diffusion.
Water moves across the plasma membrane through protein channels called ___ and the term for movement of water is ___.
Which term applies to a solution with a higher solute concentration than another solution?
True or false: Assuming water can move across a membrane, water always moves from hypotonic to hypertonic solutions.
Which of the following requirements apply to active transport? Mark all that apply.
(check all that apply)
Which term BEST applies to a type of active transport in which a substance is chemically modified after moving across a membane?
The term for the location of the bacterial genome in the cytoplasm is _____
Inclusions in bacteria primarily function in _____
storage of organic or inorganic substance
The primary function of an endospore is _____.
Survival of the bacteria under unfavorable conditions
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