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130 terms

Muscles and Muscle Tissue

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a sarcomere is the distance between two
z discs
contains only the actin filaments
i bands
the thicker filaments are the
myosin filaments
both actin and myosin are found in the
a band
serves as the actual trigger for muscle contraction by removing the inhibition of the troponin molecules
calcium ions
a neurotransmitter released at motor end plates by the axon terminals
acetylcholine
a metabolic pathway that provides for a large amount of ATP per glucose because oxygen is used
acetylchlinesterase
normally stored in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
calcium ions
used to convert ADP to ATP by transfer of high energy phosphate group
cratine phosphate
destroys ACH
acetycholnesterase
muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy
muscular dystrophy
which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate
smooth
most muscles contain
a mixture of fiber type
fatigues muscle cells that recover rapidly are the products of
intense exercise of short duration
the strongest muscle contractions are normally achieved by
increasing the stimulation up to the maximal stimulus
recruited later in muscle stimulation when contractile strength increases
motor units with larger, less excitable neurons
in skeletal muscle contraction, calcium apparently acts to
remove the blocking action tropomyosin
calcium ions bind to the
troponin molecule in skeletal muscle cells
myoglobin
stores oxygen in muscle cells
an elaborate network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that functions in calcium storage is the
sarcoplasmic reticulum
a sarcomere is
the area between two z discs
the period during which the events of excitation contraction coupling occur
latent
creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by
storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resythesize ATP
after nervous stimulation of the muscle cell has ceased, the calcium
level in the cytoplasm drops
the major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to
regulate intracellular calcium concentration
the striations of skeletal muscle cell are produced by
the arrangement of myofilaments
composed of myosin
thick filaments
during muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites
actin filaments
surrounds the individual muscle cell
endomysium
smooth muscle that act like skeletal muscles but are controlled by autonomic nerves and hormones are
multiunit muscles
rigor mortis occurs because
no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules
act as stimuli to initiate muscle contraction
hormonal activity, neurotransmitters, a change in the pH of muscle
aponeurosis refers to
a sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element
the warm up period required of athletes in order to bring their muscles to peak performance is called
treppe
the main effect of the warm up period of athletes as the muscle contractions increase in strength is to
enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems
when a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in
refractory period
in an isotonic contraction, the muscle
changes in length and moves the "load"
the muscle cell membrane is called the
sarcolema
smooth muscle contracts
in a twisting way
contraction of smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle in that
the site of calcium regulation differes
the cells of single unit visceral muscle
exhibit spontaneous action potentials
certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide
to increase their numbers
characteristics of smooth muscle
lacks troponin, no sarcomeres, has noncontractile intermediate filaments that attach to dense bodies within the cell
muscle tissue properties
contractibility, extensibility, and excitability
the giant protein titin maintains the organization of the
a band assisting in muscle stretching
striated muscle cells are
long and cylindrical with many nuclei
an anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net atp's per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is
glycosis
muscle tone is
a state of sustained partial contraction
the sliding filament model of contraction involves
actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlap
after nervous stimulation stops, ACh in the synaptic cleft is prevented from continuing stimulation of contraction by
acetylcholinesterase destroying the ACh
muscle tension
remains relatively constant during isotonic contraction
the most distinguishing characteristic of muscle tissue is
the ability to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy
red muscle fibers are during
a long relaxing swim
has only one nucleus, no sarcomeres and rare gap junctions
multiunit smooth muscle
if muscle was stretched to the point where thick and thin filaments no longer overlapped
no muscle tension would be generated
claudation might be called
limping
the end of the muscle that typically moves when a muscle contracts is called
the insertion
in the synaptic cleft of a neuromuscular junction, an enzyme called
acetycholinesterase is always present
the time in which cross bridges are active is called
the period of contraction
slow oxidative fibers
red fibers
smooth sustained contraction is called
tetanus
flexes the wrist
flexor carpi ulnaris
slow acting finger flexor
flexor digitorum profundus
powerful wrist extends and abducts the wrist & thumb
extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
muscle that opposes and reverses the action of another muscle
antagonist
muscle that stabilizes the origin of another muscle
fixator
muscle that aids another by promoting the same movement
synergist
movements of the thigh are accomplished by muscles anchored to the
pelvic girdle
the insertion of the biceps brachii is
on the radius
a synergist of the gastronemius used in plantar flexion
the soleus
the pharyngeal constrictor muscles
propel food down the esophagus
the arrangement of a muscles fasicles determine
its range of motion and power
the largest, strongest tendon in the body
the calcaneal tendon (achilles tendon)
has two bellies, the frontal and occipital
epicranius or occipitofrontalis
the recording and interpretation of graphic records of the electrical activity of contracting muscles
electromyogrpahy
the broadest muscle of the back
latissimus dorsi
muscle spasms of the back would often include the
erector spinae
scissors demonstrate which type of lever
first class
muscle responsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking
fibularis tertius
what is the major factor controlling the manner in which levers work
the difference in positioning of the effort, load and fulcrum
muscle fiber arrangement in a pennate muscle
the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle
determines the power of a muscle
the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement is called
an agonist
when the term biceps, triceps or quadriceps forms the part of a muscle's name
the muscle has 2,3, or 4 origins
there are over _______ muscles in the body
600
when the term levator is part of the descriptive term for a muscle's action this means that
the muscle elevates and or adducts a region
the suprahyoid muscles are a group of muscles that lie
superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity
the action of the surapinatus is to
stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward location of the humerus and to assist in abduction
the extensor carpi radialis brevis
extends and abducts the wrist and is short
the muscles that are found at openings of the body are called
circular muscles
to produce horizontal wrinkles in the forehead the
frontal belly of the epicranius muscles are involved
tongue muscle used to stick out your tongue
geniglossus
group of muscles that rotates the neck
the scalenes
muscles involved in crossing one leg over the other
the sartorius
muscle that inserts by the calcaneal tendon
the gastrocnemius
a lever that operates at a mechanical disadvantage means that
the lad is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum
does not compress the abdomen
coccygeus
the muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a
synergist
a muscle located on the dorsal side of the body is the
infraspinatus
not a member of the hamstrings
gracillis
sucking muscle
buccinator
spasms of this straplike muscle often result in wryneck
sternocleidomastoid
muscles are classified by
location, type of action they cause, shape
in flexing the forearm at the elbow the
triceps brachii acts as antagonist
orbicularis oris
closes, purses, and protrudes the lips
in a pennate muscle pattern
muscles look like a feather
the extensor digitorum longus has which type of fascicle arrangement
unipennate
pain in the arm (forearm) that swings a racquet is a strain of the
brachioradialis
to exhale foribly, one would contract the
internal intercostals of the diaphragm
paralysis of this muscle would make an individual unable to flex the thigh
iliopsoas and rectus femoris
can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage depending on the location
first class levers
geniohyoid, hyglossus and stylohyoid all act on the
tongue
adductor magnus, adductor longus and adductor brevis are parts of a large muscle mass of the
medial compartment of the thigh
muscle involved in abduction
deltoid
muscle flexor of the thigh
adductor magnus
muscle involved in inversion at the ankle joint
tibialis anterior
serves as a common intramuscular injection sites
the vastus lateralis
paralysis of this muscle would make an individual unable to flex the knee
hamstring
powerful forearm extensor
triceps brachii
known as the boxer muscle
serratus anterior
runs deep into the external oblique
internal oblique
helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing
buccinator
draws corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror
platysma
main chewing muscle
masseter
has a convergent arrangement of fascicles
pectoralis major
the abnormal protrusion of the small intestine through a week point in the muscle of the abdominal wall
hernia
run at right angles to the axis of the muscle
transverse fibers
quadriceps femoris is composed of three vastus muscles and the
rectus femoris
the synergist of the latissimus dorsi
teres major
extends the great toe
extensor hallucis longus