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Chemistry Exam 1 Review
Terms in this set (24)
What are the three states of matter? Give one or more physical properties of each.
Solid = fixed volume & shape, particles are close together
Liquid = fixed volume, no fixed shape, particles are close but able to flow
Gas = no fixed volume or shape, particles are very spaced out
What is an element vs a compound? Are they a pure substance or mixture?
An element is the simplest type of pure substance. A compound is a pure substance made of 2 or more different elements in some ratio.
What is the difference between a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous mixture?
A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that has the same composition throughout. It looks like 1 phase.
A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture that as a varied composition throughout. It can have multiple phases.
Determine whether the following is a physical or chemical change:
Copper conducts electricity
Ga metal melts in your hand
Bread turns brown in a toaster
(a) Physical change. Copper does not change chemically when electricity flows through it: It remains copper.
(b) Physical change. Gallium is changes its state, not its chemical composition when it melts.
(c) Chemical change. This is an example of the Maillard reaction describing the chemical reaction of sugar molecules and amino acids.
(d) Physical change.
(e) Chemical change. When iron rusts it is oxidized to iron (III) oxide.
Perform the following conversions:
100 cm = ? mm
2.5 x 106 g = ? Mg
Convert -26 oF to oC and K.
What is the difference between accuracy and precision?
The accuracy of a measured value is the closeness of that value to the true value of the quantity. The precision of a number of repeated measurements of the same quantity is the closeness of the measurements to one another.
How many significate figures do the following measured quantities have:
37.00 = 4
0.000065 = 2
2400 = 2
3.4 x 104 = 2
Perform the following calculations and round off the answer with the correct number of significant figures:
0.0023 x 315 = 0.72
84.25 - 0.01075 = 84.24
Perform the following conversions:
8.2 mg/L to ug/L =
8.4 ft2 to cm2 =
32 mi/s to km/hr =
Calculate the density of kerosene in g/mL if its mass is 36.4 g and its volume is 45.6 mL.
density = mass/ volume = 36.4 g/45.6 mL = 0.798 g/mL
The compound Cr(C2H3O2)3 is used in the tanning of leather. How many atoms of each element are given in the formula?
Cr = 1, C = 6, H = 9, O = 6
What is the name of the compound?
Chromium (III) acetate
What is the difference between atomic mass and mass number?
Mass number is the number of protons and neutrons of a particular isotope of an element. Atomic mass is the weighted average of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
For the isotope notation, , what do A and Z represent?
A = mass number (# of protons + neutrons), Z = atomic number (# of protons)
What is an isotope?
An isotope of an element has the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons.
Write the symbol for n isotope of iodine whose atoms have 78 neutrons.
What are each of the three subatomic particles? What are the charge and relative mass of each subatomic particle?
Iodine-131 is used to treat overactive thyroids. Give the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the atom.
131I has 53 protons, 53 electrons, and 78 neutrons.
For each of the main group/representative (A group elements), which charge will an element in the column form?
1A = +1
2A = +2
3A = +3
5A = -3
6A = -2
7A = -1
What is the difference between "periods" and "groups/families"?
Periods are horizontal rows of the periodic table and groups or families are vertical columns with similar reactivity.
What are the common families on the periodic table to what group number do they correspond?
Alkali metals (1A), Alkaline earth metals (2A), Halogens (7A), Nobel gases (8A)
What are the seven diatomic molecules?
H2, Br2, N2, O2, F2, I2, Cl2
What subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
Protons + neutrons
What subatomic particle(s) is/are found outside of the nucleus? Where do they live in an atom?
Electrons, found in the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.
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