Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Industry and Agriculture 5: Nationalism and Sectionalism Part 1
Terms in this set (35)
The Transportation Revolution
The original 13 states hugged the Atlantic Coast, and all major settlements in the United States sprang up near a harbor or river because water provided the most efficient way to move people and goods.
At the start of the nineteenth century, overland transportation consisted of carts, wagons, sleighs, and stagecoaches pulled by horses or oxen over dirt roads.
Moving goods just a few dozen miles by road could cost as much as shipping the same cargo across the ocean.
Improving the Roads
In an effort to improve overland transportation, some states chartered companies to operate turnpikes—roads for which users had to pay a toll.
The term came from the turnpikes, or gates, that guarded entrances to the roads.
Turnpike operators were supposed to use toll income to improve the roads and ease travel.
But only a few turnpikes made a profit, and most failed to lower transportation costs or increase the speed of travel.
The country's lone decent route, which was made of crushed rock, was the National Road.
Funded by the federal government, this roadway extended west from Maryland to the Ohio River (in present-day West Virginia) in 1818.
The Steamboat Goes Commercial
The first major advance in transportation was the development of the steamboat.
By burning wood or coal, the engine boiled the water to create steam.
The force of the steam turned a large, rotating paddle, which pushed the boat through the water.
American Robert Fulton designed the first commercially successful steamboat—the Clermont.
Advantages of the Steam Boat
The steamboat made it much easier to travel upstream against the current.
For example, before the steamboat, it took about four months to travel the 1,440 miles from New Orleans to Louisville, Kentucky, along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers.
In 1820, a steamboat made the same journey in just 20 days.
By 1838, it took a steamboat only six days.
Steamboats unlocked the great potential of the Mississippi River Basin for moving people and goods.
The number of steamboats plying the rivers of that system grew from 230 in 1834 to nearly 700 in 1843.
Steam-powered ships also revolutionized transatlantic travel.
By 1850, a steamship could cross the Atlantic in 10 to 14 days, compared to the 25 to 50 days for a sailing ship.
A second transportation advance of the early 1800s was the construction of canals.
The nation's canal network grew from 100 miles in 1816 to 3,300 miles in 1840.
Mostly built in the Northeast, canals provided efficient water transportation that linked farms to the expanding cities.
The best-known canal of the era was the Erie Canal. Completed in 1825, it ran 363 miles across New York State from Lake Erie to the Hudson River.
Before this canal went into service, it could cost $100 or more to ship a ton of freight overland from the city of Buffalo on the shores of Lake Erie to New York City.
The canal lowered that cost to just $4.
Efficiency of the Erie Canal
By funneling western produce to the Hudson River, the Erie Canal helped make New York City the nation's greatest commercial center.
As a result, the city grew quickly.
From a population of 124,000 in 1820, its population surged to 800,000 in 1860.
The canal also enhanced the value of farmland in the Great Lakes region, because farmers there now had easier access to eastern markets for their goods.
Railroads Further Ease Transport
The most dramatic advance in transportation in the 1800s was the arrival of a new mode of transportation—railroads.
This technology, largely developed in Great Britain, began to appear in the United States in the 1820s.
Horses pulled the first American trains.
But clever inventors soon developed steam-powered engines, which could pull heavier loads of freight or passengers at higher speeds than horses could manage
Advantages of Rail Road Production
Compared to canals, railroads cost less to build and could more easily scale hills.
Trains moved faster than ships and carried more weight.
Their introduction put a quick end to the brief boom in canal building.
Meanwhile, the American rail network expanded from 13 miles of track in 1830 to 31,000 miles by 1860.
In 1800, a journey from New York City to Detroit, Michigan, took 28 days by boat.
In 1857, the same trip took only two days by train.
What were the major developments in transportation between 1800 and 1860?
the National Road, canals, steamboats, and railroads
Advancements were made in transportation—over land and over water.
In the early 1800s, a transportation revolution changed the economy of the United States. As new methods of transportation developed, the cost of moving goods dropped and businesses grew.
Why was the National Road an important part of overland transportation in 1818?
It was the only good route from Maryland to the Ohio River.
How did steamboats revolutionize the movement of people and goods?
They made travel much faster on the Mississippi River.
How did the construction of canals affect transportation in the Northeast?
It lowered the cost of shipping produce from farms to cities.
Technology Sparks Industrial Growth
Developments in technology also transformed manufacturing.
This transformation became known as the Industrial Revolution, which changed not only the nation's economy but also its culture, social life, and politics.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the 1700s, with the development of machines, powered by steam or flowing rivers, to perform work that had once been done by hand.
The first machines spun thread and wove cloth more quickly and cheaply.
Slater Opens First Textile Mill
To protect its industrial advantage, the British banned the export of machinery, as well as the emigration of workers with knowledge of the technology.
However, a skilled worker named Samuel Slater defied that law and moved to the United States.
Slater used his detailed knowledge of the textile machinery to build the nation's first water-powered textile mill in 1793 at Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
The mill used the flowing Blackstone River to power its machinery, which produced one part of the textile: cotton thread.
Slater and his business partners later built more factories along New England rivers.
These factories used the so-called family system, in which entire families, including parents and children, were employed in the mills.
Those families settled in villages owned by factory owners and located around the mills.
Lowell Builds Fully Operational Mill
Boston merchant Francis Cabot Lowell developed another industrial system in Massachusetts.
In 1811, he toured England's factory towns to gather secret information.
Returning home, Lowell organized a company called the Boston Associates.
In 1813, the associates built their first mill at Waltham, Massachusetts, in which all operations in the manufacture of cloth occurred—instead of just the production of thread.
What was the name of the company that Lowell organized?
Lowell had gathered information while touring English factories, which led to the formation of the Massachusetts company and the construction of the first American mill to produce finished cloth.
During the 1820s, they built more factories on the Merrimac River and established a new town called Lowell.
Their system employed young, single women recruited from area farms.
The company enforced strict rules of behavior and housed the "Lowell girls" in closely supervised boardinghouses.
After a few years of work, most of the young women married and left the factories.
Factory Work Changes Lives
The growth of factories changed more than the speed and volume of production.
It changed the working lives of thousands of people.
Machines increased the pace of work and divided labor into many small tasks done by separate workers.
This process reduced the amount of skill and training required for individual jobs.
Factory owners benefited because untrained workers were more numerous and less costly to employ.
In some trades, owners achieved those benefits without adopting new machines.
The manufacture of clothing and shoes are two examples.
Advancement of Factories
America's first factories produced thread or cloth rather than finished clothing.
During the 1820s, a garment trade developed primarily in New York City.
Contractors provided cloth to poor women who made the clothes in their homes without the help of machines.
They earned about $1 per week.
Shoemaking followed a similar model.
Lynn, Massachusetts, led the nation in this industry.
A few men performed the skilled and better-paying tasks of cutting and shaping leather for the tops of the shoes.
For less pay (about 50 cents a week), women sewed the shoes together.
New technology also was transforming manufacturing in what came to be known as the Industrial Revolution. This revolution was enabled by the development of machines to perform work that had once been done by hand.
How did Samuel Slater and Francis Cabot Lowell change early American industry?
They opened textile mills that employed many workers.
What was one effect of the rise of factories during the Industrial Revolution?
Workers needed fewer skills and less training to do most factory jobs.
Now, in the Independent Practice, test your understanding of the rise of industry in the early 1800s.
Why did factory owners benefit from industrialization during the early 1800s?
Many jobs could be done by unskilled workers who earned lower wages.
Which person built a mill in which all operations in the manufacturing of cloth were performed?
Francis Cabot Lowell
Samuel Slater and his business partners built water-powered textile mills along New England rivers. What family system did these factories rely on?
parents and children working together in the mills
Inventions Transform Industry and Agriculture
A number of key innovations paralleled the revolutions in transportation and industry in the early 1800s.
These also dramatically affected the American economy and society.
New Methods of Production
To improve efficiency in factories, manufacturers designed products with interchangeable parts, identical components that could be used in place of one another.
Inventor Eli Whitney introduced this idea to the United States.
Traditionally, items such as clocks and muskets were built one at a time by skilled artisans who made each part and assembled the device from start to finish by hand.
As a result, a part that would work in one gun or clock might not work in any other.
Whitney proposed making muskets in a new way—by manufacturing each part separately and precisely.
Under Whitney's system, a part that would work in one musket would work in another musket. In other words, the parts would be interchangeable.
Time is the measure of success
It took some years for American manufacturers to make interchangeable parts reliably.
Yet the idea of interchangeable parts eventually made possible the much more efficient production of a wide range of manufactured goods.
One of the products manufactured with interchangeable parts was the sewing machine.
Invented by Elias Howe and improved by Isaac Singer, the sewing machine lowered the cost and increased the speed of making cloth into clothing.
Innovation Quickens Communication
In 1837, American Samuel F.B. Morse invented the electric telegraph, which allowed electrical pulses to travel long distances along metal wires as coded signals.
The code of dots and dashes is called Morse code after its inventor.
Before the telegraph, a message could pass only as fast as a horse or a ship could carry a letter.
By using Morse's invention, a message could be delivered almost instantly.
By 1860, the nation had 50,000 miles of telegraph lines.
Agriculture Remains Strong
Despite the growing size and power of the nation's factories, agriculture remained the largest industry in the United States.
But change affected farming as well.
American farms became more productive, raising larger crops for the market.
In 1815, American farmers sold only about a third of their harvests.
By 1860, that share had doubled.
The gains came partly from the greater fertility of new farms in the Midwest.
Farmers also adopted better methods for planting, tending, and harvesting crops and for raising livestock.
After 1840, large farms also employed the steel plow invented by John Deere and the mechanical reaper developed by Cyrus McCormick.
What were the key inventions between 1820 and 1860?
the system of interchangeable parts, the sewing machine, the telegraph, the steel plow, and the reaper
These key inventions paralleled the revolutions in transportation and industry.
They dramatically affected the American economy and society.
The invention of interchangeable parts improved manufacturing efficiency. Other areas of American life also were changed by new technology. Food production greatly increased as new farming methods were developed.
How did Eli Whitney change the way goods were produced in the United States?
He started making identical parts that could replace each other to increase efficiency.
How did Samuel Morse's invention change communication in the United States?
It allowed people to send messages almost instantly.
How did inventions by John Deere and Cyrus McCormick change agriculture?
The steel plow and the mechanical reaper increased production and the size of farms.
Recommended textbook explanations
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
American Anthem: Modern American History
Deborah Gray White, Edward L. Ayers, Jesús F. de la Teja, Robert D. Schulzinger
Sets found in the same folder
The American Revolution 2: The American Revolution
Causes of the Revolution 2: The American…
Declaration of Independence 2: The American Revolu…
The Revolution's End and Impact 2: The American Re…
Other sets by this creator
The Abolition Movement 6:A Changing Nation
The Age of Jackson 5:Nationalism and Sectionalism…
Industry and Agriculture 5:Nationalism and Section…
The War of 1812 4:The New Republic
If a woman was uneducated and without skills in the 1890s, what jobs were available for her?
The passage would be most useful as a source of information about which of the following? a. The impact of Enlightenment ideas on colonial society b. Radical agitators and extralegal violence c. Changing notions of family and gender roles d. Growing sectionalism and regional specialization
What roles did women and immigrants play in the California gold rush?
Make a list of powers the Articles of Confederation gave the national government. Which ones seem strong? Can you think of any important powers that are missing?
Other Quizlet sets
Chapter 46 Blood & Lymph Disorder
why did the commodore perry lead a small fleet of ships to japan
the south seceded from the rest of the country which led to the establishment of the confederacy and ultimately the civil war
Why did Homesteaders on the Great Plains usually build their homes out of sod rather than use timber or rocks?
What was the single most important defining characteristic of the Industrial Revolution?