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58 terms

Pre-AP Biology FINAL

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water, food, space, disease
4 factors to determine human growth rate
birthrate- death rate
formula for human growth rate
threats of biodiversity
habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, edge effect, habitat degradation, acid rain, ozone hole, introducing exotic species
habitat fragmentation
separation of one wilderness area from another wilderness area
edge effect
brings habitats together and creates more biodiversity (forest with lake)
trophic level
organism that represents a feeding step in the movement of energy and materials through an ecosystem
parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is not effected
autotroph
organisms that use energy from the sun or energy stored in chemical compounds to manufacture own needs
heterotroph
organisms that cannot make their own food
density dependent
limiting factors that effect growth of population (ex: disease, parasites, food availability)
density independent
factors that affect all populations, regardless of their density (ex: temperature, storms, floods)
bionomial nomenclature
two word naming system to identify species
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Order of taxon
Linnaeus
"Father of Taxonomy"
cladogram
A branching diagram that helps identify a group's derived traits
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Fungi, Plants, Animals
6 Kingdoms
eubacteria
group of prokaryotes with strong cell walls and a variety of structures, may be autotrophs
archaebacteria
chemosynthetic prokaryotes that live in harsh environments, such as deep sea vents and hot springs
fungi
group of unicellular or multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes that do not move from place to place
lytic cycle
viral replication cycle in which virus takes over a host cell's genetic material and uses the host cell's structures and energy to replicate until the host cell bursts, killing it
lysogenic cycle
viral replication cycle in which the virus's nucleic acid is integrated into the host cell's chromosome
retrovirus
type of viral replication where virus uses reverse transcript to make DNA from viral RNA; DNA is then integrated into the host cell's chromosome
prion
composed of proteins, no nucleic acid to carry genetic info (acts like a virus)
viroid
composed of a single strand of RNA with no protein coat (acts like a virus)
provirus
viral DNA that is integrated into a host cell's chromosome and replicated each time the host cell replicates
binary fission
asexual reproductive process in which one cell divides into two separate genetically identical cells
conjugation
form of sexual reproduction in some bacteria where one bacterium transfers all or part of its genetic material to another through a bridge like structure called a pilus
chemosynthesis
autotrophic process where organisms obtain energy from the breakdown of inorganic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen
endospore
tiny structure that contains a bacterium's DNA and a small amount of its cytoplasm, encased by a tougher outer covering that resists drying out, temperature extremes, and harsh chemicals (resting state)
protozoan
animal- like protists
flagellates
protozoans with flagella
ciliates
protozoans with cilia
sporozoan
parasitic protozoans
fragmentation
type of asexual reproduction in algae where an individual breaks into pieces and each piece grows into a new individual
protist
diverse group of multicellular or unicellular eukaryotes that lack complex organ systems and live in moist environments
alteration of generations
haploid forms gametophyte, gametophyte fuse and form diploid zygote, sporophyte undergoes myosis and form haploid gametophyte
water, slimy, downy mildews
3 types of molds
slime mold
beautiful colors, cool, moist, shady habitats, grow on rotting leaves or decaying logs
water mold/ downy mildew
Live in water or moist places, Feed on dead organisms or are parasites, Look like fuzzy white growths on decaying matter
hyphae
threadlike structures of fungi
mycelium
network of structures of fungi
septa
divide hyphae into individual cells
saprophyte
organism that lives on dead organic material
sporangium
in fungi, a sac or case oh hyphae in which spores are produced
haustoria
in parasitic fungi, hyphae that grow into host cells and absorb nutrients and minerals from host
extracellular digestion
how fungi obtain food, digest food outside the cell
budding
Mitosis occurs and new individual pinches off from the parent, matures and separates from the parent
mutualist fungi
live with symbiotic relationship with another organism
parasitic fungi
absorb nutrients from living cells of their hosts
stolon
fungi hyphae that grow horizontally along a surface and rapidly reproduce a mycelium
rhizoids
fungal hyphae that penetrate food and anchor a mycelium
ascomycetes
sac fungi
deuteromycetes
have no sexual stage in lifetime (fungi)
mycorrhizae
increase surface are for plant to absorb nutrients, gets food in return
lichen
provides space for algae to grow, provides food for both by photosynthesis
bread mold
rhizopus stolonifer