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water, food, space, disease

4 factors to determine human growth rate

birthrate- death rate

formula for human growth rate

threats of biodiversity

habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, edge effect, habitat degradation, acid rain, ozone hole, introducing exotic species

habitat fragmentation

separation of one wilderness area from another wilderness area

edge effect

brings habitats together and creates more biodiversity (forest with lake)

trophic level

organism that represents a feeding step in the movement of energy and materials through an ecosystem


symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another


symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit


symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is not effected


organisms that use energy from the sun or energy stored in chemical compounds to manufacture own needs


organisms that cannot make their own food

density dependent

limiting factors that effect growth of population (ex: disease, parasites, food availability)

density independent

factors that affect all populations, regardless of their density (ex: temperature, storms, floods)

bionomial nomenclature

two word naming system to identify species

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Order of taxon


"Father of Taxonomy"


A branching diagram that helps identify a group's derived traits

Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Fungi, Plants, Animals

6 Kingdoms


group of prokaryotes with strong cell walls and a variety of structures, may be autotrophs


chemosynthetic prokaryotes that live in harsh environments, such as deep sea vents and hot springs


group of unicellular or multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes that do not move from place to place

lytic cycle

viral replication cycle in which virus takes over a host cell's genetic material and uses the host cell's structures and energy to replicate until the host cell bursts, killing it

lysogenic cycle

viral replication cycle in which the virus's nucleic acid is integrated into the host cell's chromosome


type of viral replication where virus uses reverse transcript to make DNA from viral RNA; DNA is then integrated into the host cell's chromosome


composed of proteins, no nucleic acid to carry genetic info (acts like a virus)


composed of a single strand of RNA with no protein coat (acts like a virus)


viral DNA that is integrated into a host cell's chromosome and replicated each time the host cell replicates

binary fission

asexual reproductive process in which one cell divides into two separate genetically identical cells


form of sexual reproduction in some bacteria where one bacterium transfers all or part of its genetic material to another through a bridge like structure called a pilus


autotrophic process where organisms obtain energy from the breakdown of inorganic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen


tiny structure that contains a bacterium's DNA and a small amount of its cytoplasm, encased by a tougher outer covering that resists drying out, temperature extremes, and harsh chemicals (resting state)


animal- like protists


protozoans with flagella


protozoans with cilia


parasitic protozoans


type of asexual reproduction in algae where an individual breaks into pieces and each piece grows into a new individual


diverse group of multicellular or unicellular eukaryotes that lack complex organ systems and live in moist environments

alteration of generations

haploid forms gametophyte, gametophyte fuse and form diploid zygote, sporophyte undergoes myosis and form haploid gametophyte

water, slimy, downy mildews

3 types of molds

slime mold

beautiful colors, cool, moist, shady habitats, grow on rotting leaves or decaying logs

water mold/ downy mildew

Live in water or moist places, Feed on dead organisms or are parasites, Look like fuzzy white growths on decaying matter


threadlike structures of fungi


network of structures of fungi


divide hyphae into individual cells


organism that lives on dead organic material


in fungi, a sac or case oh hyphae in which spores are produced


in parasitic fungi, hyphae that grow into host cells and absorb nutrients and minerals from host

extracellular digestion

how fungi obtain food, digest food outside the cell


Mitosis occurs and new individual pinches off from the parent, matures and separates from the parent

mutualist fungi

live with symbiotic relationship with another organism

parasitic fungi

absorb nutrients from living cells of their hosts


fungi hyphae that grow horizontally along a surface and rapidly reproduce a mycelium


fungal hyphae that penetrate food and anchor a mycelium


sac fungi


have no sexual stage in lifetime (fungi)


increase surface are for plant to absorb nutrients, gets food in return


provides space for algae to grow, provides food for both by photosynthesis

bread mold

rhizopus stolonifer

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