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PDBIO 220 BYU
Terms in this set (90)
What are the divisions of senses?
General and Special
What is sensation?
Conscious awareness of incoming sensory information.
What are stimuli detected by?
What are the classes of receptors?
General senses (temperature, pain, touch, stretch, and pressure)
Special senses (gustation, olfaction, vision, equilibrium, and audition) [associated with cranial nerves]
What is modality of receptor stimulus?
The way we gather information about the world.
What are the different modalities of receptor stimulus?
What are chemorecptors?
(Taste and smell)
Detect chemical molecules
What are thermoreceptors?
Detect change in temperature
What are photoreceptors?
Detect change in light
What are mechanoreceptors?
(hearing and balance)
Detect mechanical changes like touch, vibration and stretch
ex. Proprioceptors - Detect the position and the state of contraction of muscles
What are baroreceptors?
Detect changes in blood pressure within body structures
What are Nociceptors?
What are Tactile Receptors?
Part of General Sense
Most numerous type of receptor
Mechanoreceptors that react to touch, pressure, and vibration
Where are tactile receptors found?
In the dermis and hypodermis
What is Gustation? What kind of sense?
What makes up gustation?
What are taste buds?
Microscopic chemoreceptors on tongue, posterior palate, cheeks, pharynx, epiglottis
What are papillae?
Macroscopic structures on tongue that may contain taste buds
What are the structures of papillae?
What are filiform?
anterior 2/3 of tongue, no taste buds
What are fungiform?
tip and sides of tongue, only a few taste buds
What are vallate (circumvallate)?
Back of tongue, largest, least numerous type, contain most taste buds
What are foliate?
Lateral tongeu, used during infancy and early childhood
What cells are part of the taste bud?
What are gustatory cells?
Replaced every 7-10 days
Gustatroy microvillus (taste hair)
All have nerve endings
What are supporting cells?
Insulate gustatory cells from each other and surrounding epithelium
No nerve endings
What are basal cells?
Immature; replace the other two types of cells
What does the ability to distinguish taste begin to decline?
After age 50
What are the five flavors detected over the broad regions of the tongue?
What nerves innervate the tongue?
Facial nerve (VII) innervates anterior 2/3 of tongue
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) innervates posterior 1/3 of tongue
Be able to label picture on p 568 of text.
What olfaction mean? What kind of sense?
What structures are part of olfaction?
What are olfactory neurons?
What are supporting cells?
Surround olfactory neurons
What are basal cells?
Stem cells for renewal of other cells
Be able to label picture on p 570 of text.
Wat are the accessory structures of the eye?
Eyebrows, eyelashes, and palpebrae (eyelid)
What is the conjunctiva?
Layer of CT covering sclera and attaches to the eyelid
Provides a superficial covering for the eye's anterior exposed surface
What doe the eyebrows, eylashes, and palpebrae (eyelid) do?
Prevent foreign objects from coming into contact with the eye
What do the lacrimal glands do?
Keep the exposed surface moist, clean, and lubricated
Where are the lacrimal glands found?
Superior and lateral to the eye
Be able to label the picture on p 574 of text.
- Cilliary body
* cilliary zonules (suspensory ligaments)
What is the anterior chamber filled with?
What is the posterior chamber filled with?
What is aqueous humor?
What is the vitreous chamber filled with?
Vitroeous humor (gel like)
What are cataracts?
The lens of the eye becomes opaque.
Major cause of blindness
What are the causes of cataracts?
What is the treatment for cataracts?
What are photoreceptors?
Neural layer of the retina
What type of cells make up photoreceptors?
What are rod cells?
Function in dim light
Don't provide sharp vision or color vision
100 million per eye
Black and white vision
Center of the eye
What are cone cells?
Operate best in bright light
Provide high acuity color vision
10 million per eye
What are the regions of the Retina?
What does the macula lutea contain?
What does the fovea centralis contain?
Maximal visual acuity
What does the optic disc contain?
No rods or cones
What is the optic disc?
Axons and ganglion cells converge to exit eye
Where optic nerve joins the eye
What is emmetropia?
What is Hyperopia?
Eyeball is too short so near objects are blurry
What is Myopia?
Eyeball is too long so far objects are blurry
What do the eyes develop from?
Eyes are an extension directly off of the brain.
What are the divisions of the ear?
Which parts of the ear are filled with fluid? With air?
Inner ear filled with fluid
External and middle ear filled with air
How are the external ear structures defined?
From the auricle to the tympanic membrane
What are the structures of the external ear?
External auditory (acoustic) meatus
What is the external auditory meatus?
Narrow external opening prevents large objects form entering middle ear.
What do the ceruminous glands do?
Produce cerumen (earwax)
Cerumen + dead skin cells = earwax
What is the function of earwax?
Earwax helps reduce infection by impeding microorganism growth.
What are the middle ear structures? Be able to label picture on p 586 of text.
Tensor tympani muscle and stapedius
- Malleus, Incus, Stapes
Oval (vestibular) window
Round (cochlear) window
Auditory (eustachian) tube
- connects ear to nasopharynx
What are the inner ear structures? Be able to label picture on p 587 of text.
Vestibular and cochlear nerves
Which structures of the inner ear are involved in balance?
What does the vestibule do?
Detects acceleration and deceleration
Helps sense equilibrium
What do the semicircular canals do?
Detect rotational movements
Help sense equilibrium
What does the cochlea do?
Senses audition (hearing)
What structures are part of the Spiral Organ of Corti? Be able to label pictures on p 593 of text.
1. Chochlear nerve
2. Scale vestibuli
- contains perilymph
3. Vestibular membrane
4. Scala tympani
5. Cochlear duct
6. Spiral Organ of Corti
7. Cochlear hair cells
8. Tectorial membrane
What is a cochlear implant?
It helps with hearing.
What is Otitis Media?
An infection of the middle ear.
Who is otitis media more common in?
More common in children becuase their auditory tubes are horizontal.
- Bacteria from a throat infection can migrate through the auditory tube into the middle ear.
Less common in adults because their auditory tubes are more vertical
What are the special senses?
What are the sensory cells involved in each of the special senses?
Gustation: Gustatory cell
Olfaction: Olfactory neuron
Vision: Rods and cones
Audition: Cochlear hair cells
Equilibrium: hair cells
What type of receptor is involved in each of the special senses?
What cranial nerves are involved in each of the special senses?
Gustation: VII and IX
What type of receptor detects temperature changes?
Classify the following senses as general or special: pressure, balance, vision, touch, taste.
pressure=general, balance=special, vision=special, touch=general, taste=special
Name the four types of papillae on the tongue. Which have taste buds?
Vallate/circumvallate, foliate, filiform and fungiform are the types of papillae. Vallate and fungiform papillae contain taste buds in the adult.
What type of photoreceptor detects bright color? Functions best in dim light?
Where do we find only cones?
Describe the pathway of hearing and all structures associated with it.
Pathway of sound:
• The auricle funnels sound waves into the external acoustic meatus.
• These sound waves vibrate the tympanic membrane which in turns vibrates the auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes).
• The stapes vibrates against the oval window, causing perilymph inside the scala vestibuli to vibrate.
• These waves then vibrate a specific part of the vestibular membrane (depending on the frequency of the sound), then endolymph inside the cochlear duct and then the basilar membrane.
• The vibrating basilar membrane causes the spiral organ of Corti to vibrate against the stationary tectorial membrane. The compression of the hairs on the cochlear hair cells causes this mechanoreceptor to activate a division of the cochlear nerve.
• Nerve impulses travel down the cochlear nerve and are received by the temporal lobe of the cerebrum.
• In the meantime, the vibrating basilar membrane causes the perilymph inside the scala tympani to vibrate. These waves bump against the round window and the pressure is relieved through the auditory tube.
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