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Chapter 9 - Motivation theories

Instinct theory
Innate patterns of behavior that occur in every normally functioning member of a species under certain, set conditions
Instinct theory
Dominant in late 1800s and early 1900s

Charles Darwin's theory of evolution
William James
argued that humans are more influenced by instincts than are lower animals because they are motivated by not only biological instincts but also by psychosocial instincts such as jealousy, sympathy, and sociability
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
Parental love
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
James 15 instincts
By 1920s, how many instincts proposed to account for every kind of human behavior
Basic flaw of instinct theory
Instincts did not explain behavior, they provide another way of labeling it
Behaviors under influence of genetics
selection of a potential mate
Behaviors under influence of genetics
personality traits
Behaviors under influence of genetics
Behaviors under influence of genetics
susceptibility to addiction
Behaviors under influence of genetics
susceptibility to severe behavioral disorders
behaviors influenced by learning
impossible to find one example of human behavior that fits definition of instincts
Early behavior theory
drive reduction theory
Drive-reduction theory
motivation originates with a need that is experienced in an unpleasant, aversive condition
Clark Hull (1943)
drives are any unpleasant internal condition that motivate an organism to engage in behaviors that reduce this unpleasant state of tension
Clark Hull
Primary drives and secondary or acquired drives
Primary drives
induced by internal biological needs such as water or food deprivation and they do not depend on learning
Secondary (acquired) drives
derived from experience
Acquired drives
Pavlovian conditioning
major problem with drive reduction approach
many behaviors don't appear to reduce any primary or conditioned drives.

example: many people enjoy working out. Exercise drive not reduced by weightlifting, running, cycling
major problem with drive reduction approach
sometimes stimuli in our environment can energize or motivate us to behave in a certain way in the absence of an internal drive state.

eating cookies because they smell good, not because we are hungry
any external stimulus that can motivate behavior even when no internal drive state exists

experiment shows that saccharine, which has no value and does not satisfy hunger, reinforces behavior and motivates subsequent performance of animal just because it tastes good.
behavior can be maintained by conditions that increase drive or arousal
Sheffield demonstrated that rats could learn a response that led to the initiation of copulatory behavior, even when copulation was interrupted before completion
major problem with drive reduction approach
many motivated behaviors do not decrease as they are expressed

example: the desire to explore our environments
influence on our casual explanation of behavior
drive theory
Cognitive theory
our cognitions, expectancies, beliefs, and other mental processes play an important role in motivating our actions
cognitive theory
expectations in both classical and operant conditioning

example: when we study for exam (operant behavior), a consequence occurs (good grade) that serves as a reinforcer. this association generates an expectation that if behavior repeated, it will produce positive consequences
cognitive expectancies
learned by observation

ex: if a child watches another behave aggressively with satisfactory consequences the child may come to expect positive consequences from aggressive behavior (Bandura)
Expectations are important motivators
Edward Tolman and Julian Rotter
Our likelihood of engaging in a given behavior depends on 2 factors
our expectations that a certain behavior will lead to a desired goal

value and location of that goal
animals don't learn specific stimulus-response associations; they learn which behaviors lead to which goals
How cognitive expectancies enter into our learned associations
need for high achievement
Need for high achievement
complex psychosocial motive to accomplish difficult goals, attain high standards, surpass the achievement of others, and increase self-regard by succeeding in exercising talent
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Murray developed to measure the need for achievement and other human motives
asks people to make up stories about a series of ambiguous pictures. people will project into the stories their own motives, interests, and values
cognitive expectancies
learned expectancy of relationships between stimuli (in Pavlovian conditioning) ad between responses and outcomes (operant conditioning)
cognitive dissonance theory
people experience psychological discomfort or dissonance whenever two related cognitions or behaviors are in conflict
cognitions are inconsistent
negative motivational state results, which activates us to resolve inconsistency
cognitive dissonance
occur as a result of inconsistencies between your behavior and beliefs, particularly when behavior is justified.

believe that cheating is wrong but cheat anyway. inconsistency created unless cheating justified by new belief,
biological drives
underlying needs are inborn, expression of drives is learned
sensation seeking motive
the need for certain levels of stimulation including the need to explore the environment and the need for sensory stimulation
survival value
motivation to seek stimulation evolved in many species

organisms that explore and manipulate their environment become more aware of its parameters of safety and danger
refers to a behavioral state / physiological state

ability to process information effectively and to engage in motivated behavior
express goal directed behavior
minimum level of arousal needed
too much arousal
over-stimulated, overloaded, and temporarily incapable of effective action
Donal Hebb - optimum level of arousal
level where their performance will be most efficient. varies according to the type of task performed.
optimum level of arousal theory
our performance on a task will improve as arousal increases to an optimal level. further increases will begin to interfere with our efficiency
low levels of arousal
have frequently been shown to hinder performance
Yerkes-Dodson law
optimum level of arousal for peak performance varies somewhat depending on the nature of the task.

if you are involved in a simple task, performance best if arousal level relatively high

if you are involved in a difficult task, performance best if arousal level relatively low

oversimplifies complex relationship between arousal and performance