Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
Psych Lecture 1
Terms in this set (29)
study of human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context
Systematic study of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment
The scientific study of mind and behavior
mind = private inner experience, while behavior = observable actions
should be empirical (observable, not subjective) through replicable hypothesis testing
a falsifiable prediction made on the basis of limited evidence
a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon
a well substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed through observation and experimentation
performed many reaction time studies, but also performed introspection, father of psych
inspired by Darwin and the emergence of the theory of evolution, developed functionalism. Still believed in introspection, but did use many more empirical methods too.
developed psychoanalytic theory. Almost entirely subjective, was not experimental
Pavlov, Watson, Skinner
developed and championed behaviorism, which is very scientific - uses experiments to directly observe behavior
developed by maslow and rogers, a reaction to the overly reductionistic/deterministic view of behaviorism. Less empirical, but still useful.
•more recent than the above, also developed in part as a reaction to behaviorism, uses modern techniques to apply scientific methods to mental processes that had been previously difficult to study scientifically (brain activity is insight into the mind)
behavior is the result of the function of the NONmaterial mind. (Aristotle held this view)
The mind body problem
Does the mind control the body, or does the body control the mind, or a bit of both?
A nonmaterial mind interfaces with the material brain to control behavior (Descartes held this view)
first evidence that mental processes did not occur instantaneously AND that mental processes depend on physical properties
Hermann von Helmholtz, •reaction times differed depending on how far from the brain an electric shock is delivered
•The workings of the brain and nervous system are entirely responsible for behavior
•This is the view held by most scientists today
What comes first, cause or effect
-brain activity < thought < action
Major Goals of Psychology
•To be able to understand the basis of thought and behavior
•To be able to predict how people will behave
•To be able to help people behave in more adaptive ways
•Nature vs. Nurture
the probability that a pair of individuals will both have a certain characteristic, given that one of the pair has the characteristic
•Shared environmental factors and shared genetic factors increase concordance rates
a technique to try to establish causality
changing a variable to determine its causal power
•The description of a property in concrete, measurable terms
•Instruments are used to measure the conditions to which operational definitions refer
-Anything that can detect a condition under study
Good Operational definitions
must have validity, instruments must have reliability and power
•How well an event or a measure defines a property
the ability to detect cause-and-effect relationships.
•This can be reduced by bias and confounding variables that might make a person think they see a causal relationship when actually they do not.
extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings
•Externally valid experiments have variables that have been defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way
Features of an instrument/measure:
-Reliability: Tendency for an instrument to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing
-Power: Ability of an instrument to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition
•The sensitivity of a measure - can it detect the differences that exist, or is it too crude (or weak or powerless) of a measure.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Psych Lecture 2
Psych Lecture 3
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Psych Exam 1
Psych103 Chapter 1
Chapter 1 Vocabulary
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Test 1 (Chapter 2)
Test 1 ( Chapter 1 )
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Bible Chapter 7 Review
Final Exam for Astronomy
Things I need to learn