Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Sociology, Chapter 3
Terms in this set (65)
process by which people act toward or respond to other people, foundation for all relationships and groups in society
the complex framework of societal institutions and the social practices that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on people's behaviors
Why is social structure essential for survival of society and for the well-being of individuals?
it provides a social web of familial support and social relationships that connects each of us to the larger society
What is the framework provided by social structure?
an orderly, fixed arrangement of parts that together make up the whole group or society
At the macrolevel, what are the 5 essential elements of the social structure of society?
social institutions, groups, statuses, roles, norms
WHy do functionalists emphasize social structure?
bc it creates order and predictability
What does social structure give us the ability to do?
interpret the social situations we encounter
What is the conflict theorists view on social structure?
they maintain that there is more to social structure than is readily visible and we must explore deeper, underlying structures that determine social relations in a society
the state of being part insider and part outsider in the social structure (immigrant who is in society but doesn't belong yet)
any physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person's social identity that it disqualifies that person from full social acceptance
socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights and duties (they exist independently of the people occupying them)
all the statuses that a person occupies at a given time
a social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life, based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control
a social position a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort
the most important status a person occupies, dominates all other statuses and is the overriding ingredient in determining a person's general social position (usually money)
material signs that inform others of a person's specific status
a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status
a group's or society's definition of the way a specific role ought to be played
how a person actually plays a role
situation that occurs when incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time (sometimes as a result of changing statuses and roles in society)
situation that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies
situation that occurs when people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity
What are the four stages of role exit (according to Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh)
doubt, search for alternatives, turning point at which people realize that they must take final action, creation of a new identity
group consisting of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence
a small, less socialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time (family)
a larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time (church)
Social solidarity, or cohesion
a group's ability to maintain itself in the face of obstacles
a series of social relationships that links an individual to others
a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals
a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs
What are the five basic social institutions
family, religion, education, economy, government/politics
Functional theorists emphasize that social institutions exist because they perform five essential tasks which are?
replacing members, teaching new members, producing, distributing and consuming goods and services, preserving order, providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
What are conflict theorists' views on social institutions
they are originally organized to meet basic social needs (like functionalists), but they do not believe that social institutions work for the common good of everyone
Media framing of important topics can be classified into what two categories?
thematic framing, episodic framing
framing referring to news stories that focus primarily on statistics about the subject and recent trends
framing that presents public issues as concrete events, showing them to be specific instances that occur more or less in isolation
a classification scheme containing two or more mutually exclusive categories that are used to compare different kinds of behavior or types of societies
From Durkheim's perspective, where is social solidarity derived from?
a society's social structure, which, in turn, is based on the society's division of labor
division of labor
how the various tasks of a society are divided up and performed
What are Durkheim's two categories of societal solidarity?
term for social cohesion in preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds
the social cohesion found in industrial (and perhaps, postindustrial) societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence
What terms did sociologist Ferdinard Tonnies use to characterize the degree of social solidarity and social control in societies?
a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability
a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values
societies based on technology that mechanizes production
one in which tech supports a service- and information-based economy (characterized by an info explosion and an economy in which large numbers of people either provide or apply info or are employed in service jobs)
the ways in which an individual shows an awareness that another is present without making this person the object of particular attention
Social construction of reality, according to symbolic interactionists
the process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience
a false belief or prediction that produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true
the study of the common-sense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves
How does the ethnomethodological approach contribute to our knowledge of social interaction?
by making us aware of subconscious social realities in our daily lives
the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation
Impression management (presentation of self)
people's efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image
strategies we use to rescue our performance when we experience a potential or actual loss of face
a face-saving technique in which one role player ignores the flaws in another's performance to avoid embarrassment for everyone involved
feeling rules (by Arlie Hochschild)
rules that shape the appropriate emotions for a given role or specific situation; they include how, where, when, and with whom an emotion should be expressed
work that requires employment of certain emotions
the transfer of info between persons without the use of words (visual cues, visual features, and environmental factors)
What is the purpose of nonverbal communication
to establish the relationship among people in terms of their responsiveness to and power over one another
What do facial expressions reflect?
relationships with others, gender-based patterns of dominance and subordinance in society
the immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private
What are the two types of stigmas, according to Goffman?
stigmas obvious to other people bc the source of the stigma is visible
stigmas not obvious to others and are not known or perceived by them
Sets found in the same folder
Sociology Chapter 1
Sociology, Chapter 2
Sociology, Chapter 3
Sociology, Chapter 6
Sets with similar terms
chapter 4 book terms
SOCIOLOGY in Our Times the essentials 8 edition, c…
Chapter 4 Soc
Chapter 4- Social Structure and Interaction in Eve…
Other sets by this creator
Other Quizlet sets
SOCY1001 - Exam 2
Sociology Chapter 4 quiz one
Social structure and Demographics