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Jordan AP Gov Chapter 10
Terms in this set (81)
Why are student loans considered a public policy issue?
Because a lot of loans come from the government and the government backs up the loans.
T/F People are leaving college with lots of debt.
Why do some people believe that student loan tax rates should be removed?
Because the future is going to contribute to society, so they believe that the future should be helped.
What do those who support the student loan tax rate believe?
That everyone should pay taxes.
What was the Million Student March?
A March in 2015 that consisted of students who protested this high tax rate.
What is a interest group?
An organization that tries to change public policy decisions.
Why is the main reason people won't join interest groups?
Because it can be expensive to do so.
Who are lobbyists?
People who work with interest groups.
T/F Everyone sees interest groups as a threat?
False, some people see interest groups as a threat, but some see the positives in it.
What did Alexis de Tocqueville believe about the interest groups in America?
He believed that the ability to have so many groups in the U.S. truly represents how good it's democracy is.
What did James Madison say about factions?
He believes that factions are dangerous, but inevitable because there will always be different interests.
What does Madison mean when he said "Liberty is to faction what air is to fire"?
Factions are necessary for liberty.
Why will there never be one prominent interest group?
Because the U.S. is very large and diverse, so each group will balance each other out.
Who critics of interest groups believe are the most powerful:
1. The better educated.
2. The richest.
3. The ones with the most resources.
What group do critics of interest groups believe aren't represented?
In a poll of ethical standards, where did lobbyists rank?
At the very bottom.
Despite this, lobbyists provide services.
T/F People hate lobbyists except when they share similar interests.
Benefits of interest groups:
1. Representing people.
2. Agenda-building, which makes people aware of issues.
3. Participation in political groups.
4. Educating group members.
5. Keeping track of legislation and its progress.
6. Influencing group habits and solving problems.
Who claims to represent the poor and what do they do?
Philanthropists, people who donate large sums of money.
Who was Cesar Chavez?
A field worker who organized the United Farm Workers.
Inspired by the Civil Rights Movement, what did Chavez boycott and what did he stage?
He marched 200 miles to Sacramento to boycott grapes.
Who supported Chavez and his cause?
The Catholic Church and Robert Kennedy.
What gives validity to an interest group?
Having a good leader.
Where does the money collected from interest groups go to?
The political campaigns of those who support them.
When does the free-writer problem occur?
When someone benefits from an interest group without working themselves.
Traits of being a good leader of an interest group:
3. Conveying that people have something to gain by joining their cause.
What is the most important resource for an interest group?
Why are ex-congressmen usually picked as lobbyists?
Because these people make lots of money and have connections to people in government, which makes their ability to change policy easier.
What type of employees could lobbyists be?
Full-time employees of their organization or employees of public relations or law firms who are hired on retainer.
What do people look for in a lobbyist?
Someone who knows his or her way around Washington, or someone with experience and knowledge of how governments operate.
Who was Karen Ignagni?
The chief lobbyist for the interest group America's Health Insurance Plans, who played a biography role in the Obama Administration's health insurance reform proposal.
After one recent session, how many former members of Congress who were defeated for re-election or left voluntarily were subsequently tracked as to their new population?
Of the 77, how many took jobs with firms that lobby?
Who is Christopher Dodd? Did this career work out for him?
A former Democratic Senator of Connecticut, who was hired by the Motion Picture Association of America to fight against digital theft and easier access to China. His thirty-six-year career in Congress gave him innumerable contacts around Washington; he's someone who gets his phone calls returned. He earns over $3 million a year for making those phone calls.
Why do many lobbyists have law degrees?
Because having a legal background useful in bargaining and negotiating over laws and regulations can prove quite useful.
Why are many D.C. law firms drawn into lobbying?
Because they are located in the nation's capital.
Why might a corporation hire a law firm?
When a matter arises for which they need representation.
Some companies feel they need representation on an ongoing basis and operate their own lobbying office. Who would these companies employ?
Researchers and public relations specialists along with those who lobby government officials.
What is a political action committee?
An organization that pools campaign contributions from group members and donates those funds to candidates for political office.
What is the limit of money a PAC can give to a candidate?
Why will any big industry have an interest group?
Because of their influence.
Most interest groups are considered what? What does this mean?
Bipartisan, identifying with neither party.
What type of interest group usually donates to the Democrats?
What are the main criticisms people have with PACs?
They affect public policy and it's believe that they bribe government officials.
Have political scientists been able to document any consistent link between campaign donations and the way members of Congress vote on the floor of the House and Senate?
T/F Some sophisticated research shows that PAC donations do not seem to influence what goes on in congressional committees.
False, they do.
What do those who defend PACs believe?
Interest groups and their members should have the freedom to participate in the political system through campaign donations.
What other groups are sometimes targeted by interest groups besides Congress?
The administrative agencies within the executive branch and the court.
They target the court to a lesser degree.
What is direct lobbying?
A personal exchange within the lobbyist and members of Congress.
What is grassroots lobbying?
A formal lobbying performed by rank-and-file members who send things like letters and phone calls.
What is the most common form of grassroots lobbying?
How did Uber use an imaginative grassroots campaign?
When New York City was resisting Uber's entry into the market there to compete against conventional cabs, the company, which has no membership, offered free rides to people who like Uber to a protest at city hall. The company has mobilized customers in many cities to help it fight local regulators.
Why is it considered difficult to protest?
Because you need to page persistent.
What are information campaigns?
An organized effort to gain public backing by bringing a group's views to public attention.
Explain how Coca-Cola used a successful information campaign?
Over time, as public health specialists and government policymakers have empha- sized the link between good nutrition and good health, Coca-Cola began to worry that its business would be hurt. Some school districts, for example, limit or forbid altogether the sale of sugary drinks because of health concerns.44 As a response, Coca- Cola provided money for a nonprofit, Global Energy Balance Network, which began to publicize the value of exercise and claimed that too much emphasis was now being placed on diet.45 In this particular case the revelation about Coca-Cola's self-interested sponsorship damaged the Global Energy Balance Network's credibility and it disbanded.
When does coalition building occur?
When interest groups come together to be more effective.
How are many of our laws determined?
By interaction between groups more than voting.
T/F Business has always been well represented in D.C.
What interests are most affected by free riders? Provide examples.
Broad societal problems in which everyone can be considered as having a steak in the outcome, such as the environment and consumer protection.
The greater the number of potential members of a group, the more likely it is that what will happen?
Individuals will decide to be free riders because they believe that plenty of others can offer financial support of the organization.
What are citizen groups?
Lobbying organization built around policy concerns unrelated to members' vocational interests.
When did citizen groups emerge and why?
The 1960s, because Environmental and consumer interests were long underrepresented in the Washington interest group community.
Why do people join the Natural Resources Defense Council?
Because they care about the environment and not because it lobbies on issues related to their profession.
The benefits to citizen groups are usually what?
Ideological and aesthetic.
Incorporation fighting for the same stringent standards is trying to do what?
Protect its economic interests.
A law that requires a corporation to install expensive anti politics devices can:
1. Reduce stockholders' dividends.
2. Depress salaries.
3. Postpone expansion.
When Congress consid- ers a bill or an agency is formulating a regulation, the stakes for who can be enormous.
Individual corporations and industries.
How much does Comcast spend a year on lobbying?
What was Comcast's revenue in 2015?
Which industry best illustrates the level of involvement by business in Washington lobbying?
The health-care industry.
How does the government limit what healthcare providers can charge?
Through reimbursement formulas for Medicare, Medicaid, and other health-care programs funded by Washington.
How do healthcare trade and professional organizations view lobbying?
Significant to the well-being of its members.
Aggregate lobbying expenditures by health-care lobbies in 2015 was around how much money
Half a billion dollars.
Which form of lobbyist has more groups than any other?
Resources of business:
3. Campaign contributions.
4. Well-connected chief executive officers.
What do citizen groups try to mobilize? What do trade associations try to mobilize?
Individual members, corporations that are members of the organization.
Obstacles of businesses:
1. It is often divided.
2. Even if an industry is unified, it may face strong opposition from labor or citizen groups.
3. If both sides have sufficient resources to put up a battle, simply having more money or lobbyists than the other side is unlikely to determine the outcome.
In an economic system marked by great differences in income, what is inevitable?
great differences in the degree to which people are organized.
If it is felt that the advantages of some groups are so great that they affect the equality of people's opportunity to be heard in the political system, then restrictions on interest group behavior can be justified on what grounds?
The disadvantaged must be protected.
Pluralist democracy is justified on what grounds?
All constituencies must have the opportunity to organize, and competition between groups as they press their case before policymakers must be fair.
Some critics charge that a system of campaign finance that relies so heavily on PACs undermines what? What do they claim?
Our democratic system. They claim that access to policymakers is purchased through the wealth of some constituencies.
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