23 terms

Soc Study Guide Test 2

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Terms in this set (...)

subsidies
benefit given by gov't to groups or individuals ($ or tax reduction), considered to be in public interest
trickle-down
help out the rich by not taxing them and benefits (jobs) will trickle down to all the classes
burden
"the costs and burdens of whatever is done must be borne by those least able to bear them" (basically the poor people are left with the burdens)
foreign-policy (trunk decision)
corporations benefit
pluralism
power among various groups and interests, fluid, not concentrated
a situation in which different groups live in mutual respect but retain their racial, religious, or ethnic identities
representative democracy
emphasizes that the people have the ultimate power
(elect representatives who are responsive to the peoples wishes but dont always do so
"command" positions
the most important positions in society( 3 sections: political, economic and military) they all have common interests and goals
trunk decisions
foreign
producer networks
big corporations dominate small businesses
opinion-shaping process
manufacture consent
policy-planning process
think-tanks, foundations,& universities, "Research" , creates and writes legislation.
special-interests process
lobbying
candidate selection process
they pay for the campaigns of the candidates hoping to have someone that will support the upper class when elected
manufacturing consent
think we are giving consent, but we are really just being told
credentialism
over emphasis of importance of certificates or degree to show skills and level of education
vocational training
practical skills relating to occupation at hand
distance learning
a method of studying in which lectures are broadcast or classes are conducted by correspondence or over the Internet, without the student's needing to attend a school or college
subversive
undermining.. seeking to distrupt/rebel against established system or institution
business model
The plan implemented by a company to generate revenue and make a profit from operations
meritocracy
a system of stratification in which rank is based purely on achievement
flush theory
this theory directly coincides with the banking method, where educators "deposit" the material that's going to be tested on into the students' heads, and then students "flush" out the material for the test. Once the test is over, the knowledge is usually "flushed" down the toilet.
legitidimation crisis
legitimation crisis occurs when a governing structure still retains the legal authority by which to govern, but is not able to demonstrate that its practical functioning fulfills the end for which it was instituted.
Fourth Estate
this has to do with the creation of the mechanism of journalism/media that is independent of the government. This is usually not the case anymore, since the advent of huge for-profit media conglomerates has taken over