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*Abraham Maslow- man's hierarchy of needs to understand human behavior
*believed that it was important to study people who are well adjusted, not just people who are maladjusted
*believed that people are in control of their own behavioral choices, which are determined by underlying values rather than the external environment
*people at most basic level, struggling for survival, working to obtain food, oxygen, and rest; maintaining physiologic stability
*if needs unmet, person could die; meeting them only partially causes personal discomfort
Safety, security, and self-preservation
*satisfying needs is important to provide structure, predictability, and protection to person's life
*if needs go unmet, person will experience separation, anxiety and fear of self-harm
Love and belonging
*being part of social groups and organizations allows a person to develop mutually fulfilling relationships
*if need unmet will exhibit loneliness and experience feelings of alienation
Esteem and recognition
*person must feel like a worthwhile, contributing member of society; giving service to professional organization, serving on boards, etc
*If need for esteem and recognition goes unfulfilled , feelings of inferiority and helplessness will result
*to be self-actualized is to be fulfilled; people who know who they are, appreciate what they can do, face life's challenges confidently, have realistic expectations of themselves and others, healthy sense of humor
*if needs for self-actualization go unmet, person will experience loss of self-esteem and self-confidence
*need for truth, harmony, beauty, spirituality
*people who have become self-actualized will seek these needs
*frustration of needs can result in dissatisfaction and restlessness
Nursing implications of humanistic model
*lower-level needs must be met before higher-level needs can emerge
*nurses must do a needs assessment, which enables them to determine appropriate intervention strategies for assisting patients to meet unmet needs
*people can choose to fulfill unmet needs but sometimes require assistance
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