Foundations of Reading Practice Test Part1

Phonological Awareness
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Terms in this set (52)
Phonological awareness is the ability to hear sounds that make up words in spoken language. This includes recognizing words that rhyme, deciding whether words begin or end with the same sounds, understanding that sounds can be manipulated to create new words, and separating words into their individual sounds.
Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear and manipulate individual phonemes. Phonological awareness includes this ability, but it also includes the ability to hear and manipulate larger units of sound, such as onsets and rimes and syllables. Specific Type of Phonological awareness involving the ability to distinguish the separate phonemes in a spoken word.
needs help developing phonemic segmentation skills.
Children who can segment and blend sounds easily are able to use this knowledge when reading and spelling. Segmenting and blending individual sounds can be difficult at the beginning. Our recommendation is to begin with segmenting and blending syllables. Once familiar with that, students will be prepared for instruction and practice with individual sounds.
a student who, after hearing the word hot, can substitute the vowel to make hit. The ability to omit or substitute phonemes to make new words. 1. Rhyming words 2. words are made up of syllables 3. Aware of Onsets and Rimes in words 4. Able to count how many sounds in a word
and able to identify the sounds heard in a word 5. Able to omit or substitute phonemes to make new words
A teacher shows a student pictures of familiar objects. As the teacher points to the first picture, she asks the student to name the object in the picture. Next, she asks the student to count on his fingers the number of sounds he makes as he says the word again. This activity is most likely to promote which of the following?
A beginning-level English Language Learner can consistently blend individual phonemes to make simple English words composed of two or three phonemes but it having difficulty blending the sounds of familiar single-syllable words composed of four phonemes (e.g., clip, trap, spin). Which of the following questions would be most important for the first-grade teacher to consider when addressing the needs of this student?Does the student's primary language have consonant blends? Consonant blends (also called consonant clusters) are groups of two or three consonants in words that makes a distinct consonant sound.A fourth-grade student reads on grade level and consistently scores very high on spelling tests. However, the student often misspells the same words, and other familiar words. girl - gril instead - intead Why? Which weakness - foundational skills?segmenting and sequencing phonemes in wordsPhonemic Awareness Development ContinuumWord Comparison Rhyming Sentence segmentation Syllable segmentation and blending Onset-rime blending and segmentation Blending and Segmenting individual phonemes Phoneme deletion and manipulationA preschool child picks up an unfamiliar book, opens it to the end, points to the text, and begins to "pretend read" the story. These behaviors suggest that the child most likely:has developed an understanding that print carries meaning.A preschool child draws a stick figure and makes some unintelligible scribbles around it. When she shows it to her teacher, she points to the scribbles and says, "This says 'I love mommy.'" This behavior suggests that the child most likely:has grasped the idea that the function of print is distinct from that of pictures.At the end of the school day, a preschool teacher encourages the children to talk about the day's events. As the children describes each event, the teacher writes it on large block paper. Afterward, the teacher read the lis back to the class. This activity would contribute to the children's literacy development primarily by promoting their:awareness that speech can be represented by writing.A kindergarten teacher hangs labels on key objects in the classroom, puts up poster that include words and captions, and always has a big book on display for the children's use. This kind of classroom environment is most likely to promote children's:development of an awareness of print. Children who have an awareness of print understand that the squiggly lines on a page represent spoken language. They understand that when adults read a book, what they say is linked to the words on the page, rather than to the pictures.A preschool teacher is reading a story to his class. As he reads, he holds the book so the children can see the words and pictures while his finger follows the line of print. This activity would contribute the children's reading development primarily by:developing their awareness of left-to-right directionalityPointing out the title, beginning, middle, and end of a book to a group of preschool children before reading the book aloud to them contributes to their reading development primarily by promoting their:development of book-handling skillsWhich of the following strategies would be most effective in promoting kindergarten children's ability to recognize and name letters of the alphabet?The teacher says the name of a letter while the children each trace it's shape on a cutout letter.Having Kindergarten children practice tracing the letters of the alphabet in sand is most appropriate for children who are having difficulty:developing letter formation skills.A preschool teacher shows a group of children pictures of everyday objects. Below each picture is printed the letter of the alphabet that corresponds to the word's initial sound. As the teacher points to each picture, she names the object, then she points to the letter underneath it and says the sound it makes. The teacher invites the children to repeat the sound with her. This activity is likely to contribute to the children's reading development primarily by:demonstrating that phonemes are represented by letters.A kindergarten teacher wants to promote students' understanding of the alphabetic principle. Which of the following would be the most effective first step in a sequence of instruction designed to achieve this goal?Talk with students about selected consonants using a series of posters that each feature one consonant and contain pictures of items whose initial phoneme demonstrates that consonant's sound. Children's knowledge of letter names and shapes is a strong predictor of their success in learning to read. Knowing letter names is strongly related to children's ability to remember the forms of written words and their ability to treat words as sequences of letters.A second-grade teacher regularly reviews spelling patterns previously taught. The teacher also provides students with multiple opportunities to read and write connected text that features words containing the target spelling patterns and to engage in word sorts focused on previously taught spelling patterns. These types of activities are like to promote students' reading proficiency primarily by developing their:reading fluency with respect to accuracy.Morphemesmorpheme: a combination of sounds that have a meaning. A morpheme does not necessarily have to be a word.Which of the following best describes the relationship between word decoding and reading comprehension in a beginning reader's development.Rapid automatic decoding skills help facilitate development of reading fluency and comprehension.A teacher can most effectively support first graders' development of rapid automatic word recognition by first teaching students how to:apply consistent phonics generalization in common words. Phonics Generalizations are phonics rules that are taught to emerging readers to help them learn letter combination sounds to increase reading and spelling ability.A second-grade teacher pairs students who are reading at approximately the same independent reading level for a partner-reading activity. During the activity, the two partners sit side by side and take turns reading aloud from a shared text. Over a period of several days, the partners read a large number of independent-level texts together. This activity is best designed to promote students':development of reading rate and automaticity.Prosody:In reading, prosody refers to the expressiveness with which a student reads. It is the intonation, rhythm and emphasis given to words and sentences when reading out loud. Prosody is a key component in reading fluency.Which of the following strategies would be most effective in promoting second graders' decoding of multisyllable words?prompting students to sound out the individual phonemes that compose multisyllable words. Multisyllable Method is a decoding strategy for reading the longer words struggling readers often attempt to read by guessing. This method of word attack teaches your child to decode long multisyllabic words by first breaking them up into chunks, and then efficiently testing the vowel sounds in a selection of those chunks.According to basic principles of research-based, systematic phonics instruction, which of the following common English letter combinations would be most appropriate for a first-grade teacher to introduce first?thA second-grade teacher administer spelling inventories periodically to help assess students' phonics knowledge. The following show one student's performance on spelling inventory at the beginning of the year and several months later. First time then second, set-set-set, star-ster-star, drive-driv-drive, peach-pech-peche, turn-tarn-turn, join-joyn-joyn. What areas improved?long and r-controlled vowels.Which of the following provide the best rationale for incorporating spelling instruction into a first-grade reading program?Spelling supports words recognition by helping students learn and retain common phonics patterns.Which of the following statements best describes how oral vocabulary knowledge is related to the process of decoding written words.A reader's oral vocabulary knowledge allows the reader to derive meaning as he or she decodes written words.My family went tot he circus last weekend. I liked the clowns the best. They were very funny. - A students makes several miscues when reading these sentence aloud. Which of the following miscues represents an error in decoding consonant blends?NOT - omitting circus NOT - pronouncing clowns as clones YES - saying bet for best NOT - shortening funny to funWhich of the following sentences contains a pair of italicized words that differ from one another by one phoneme? A. He took off his cap so that he could take a nap. B.She works at a bank that is located near the bank of a river. C. She told him not to buy a ticket because she had already bought one. D. His face looked pale after he carried the pail of water for a mile.A. He took off his cap so that he could take a nap.Which of the following students demonstrates variation in reading development that would require intervention focused on explicit phonics instructions?Explicit instruction involves direct explanation. Concepts are clearly explained and skills are clearly modeled, without vagueness or ambiguity (Carnine, 2006). C. a second-grade student who is adept at using context clues to identify words but has difficulty sounding out the letters in unfamiliar words.A student who has mastered which of the following skills along the phonological awareness continuum is best prepared to begin explicit phonics instruction?being able to segment and blend a word's phonemes.Morphemic structureThe way in which to view a word by its parts. Prefix, suffix, inflectional endings, compound words.Which of the following sets of words would be most effective to use when introducing students to the concept of structural analysis?pretest, retest, tested, testing instruction focuses on structural analysis, the process of using familiar word parts (base words, prefixes, and suffixes) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.An ELL pronounces tigers as tiger when reading. Which of the following actions is most appropriate for the teacher to take first in response tot he student's miscue?verify that the student understands that tigers means more than one tiger.Which of the following principles is best illustrated by the words watched, wanted and warned?The spelling of a suffix is often more reliable than itsThe words enjoyable, maneuverable, corruptible, and convertible best illustrate which of the following principles.The spelling of a suffix can very depending on its root word.A second-grade teacher has students pull two single-syllable nouns from a hat (e.g., bulb, light) and asked the to form words by putting the words together (e.g., lightbulb). This activity is likely to be most effective for helping students:understand the concept of compound words.Instruction in structural analysis is likely to promote upper elementary students' reading comprehension primarily by:equipping them with strategies for understanding the meaning of unfamiliar multisyllable words.One third-grade student performs significantly better on reading a passage than reading a list of words, which is the best assessment for this student's reading performance. Why?The student is proficient at using context clues to help identify words but has weak word decoding skills.Can you think of sentences that show two different ways in which each of the following words can be used? saw, spell, root, run, play, fly, kind, seal. This activity would best promote students' ability to:identify and decode common homographs. A homograph is a group (usually a pair) of words that are spelled the same way, but have different meaningsA sixth-grade student asks the teacher about the meaning of deja vu in the sentence. The teacher could best respond by advising the student to take which of the following steps?This is their answer but I am not sure I agree. Look up the word in the dictionary, and then paraphrase the sentence using the dictionary definition.Before reading a new content-area passage the teachers ask her fourth-grade students to think of words related to the topic of the text.extend and reinforce their expressive and receptive vocabularies related to the text's topic.Idiomatic expressionan expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up. To help students understand idiomatic expressions, discussion with them and give them more examples of these phrases used in context - one fell swoop.A second-grade student demonstrates automaticity decoding grade-level regular and irregular words. However, the student frequently experiences poor text comprehension. Which of the following is the first step the teacher should take in order to promote this student's reading proficiency?determining the extent of the student's vocabulary knowledge.A fifth-grade teacher is about to begin a new unit on weather climate. Which of the following types of vocabulary word from the unit would be most appropriate for the teacher to preteach?words that are conceptually challenging.