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a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin


lack of integrity or honesty (especially susceptibility to bribery)

Martin Luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

95 theses

Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on Octobe 31, 1517.


(Christianity) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil


a member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation.

John Calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)


the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power


government run by religious leaders


relating to the Church of England


Catholic Church's attempt to stop the Protestant movement and to Ssrengthen the Catholic Church


a place between heaven and hell; a temporary in-between stage of suffering (-)


favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs)

Charles V

This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation

Peace of Augsberg

1555-allowed each prince to decide which religion-Catholic or Lutheran-would be followed in his lands

Henry VIII

English king who created the Church of England afterMartin Luther the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)


French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.


Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe. (p. 548)


a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

Diet of Worms

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.

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