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The power of the organism to overcome its host's defenses is called ___


Heat, redness, swelling, and pain are classic signs of ___


Any foreign substance that enters the body and induces an immune response is called a(n) ___

gamma globulin fraction

All antibodies are contained in a portion of the blood plasma termed the ___


Substances capable of inducing a hypersensitivity reaction are called ___

cytotoxic T cells

Destroy foreign cells directly ___

helper T cells

Release interleukins, which stimulate other cells to join the immune response ___

regulatory T cells

Suppress the immune response in order to prevent overactivity ___

memory T cells

Remember an antigen and start a rapid response if the antigen is contacted again ___

B cells

Manufacture antibodies when activated by antigens ___


All of the following are part of the first line of defense against invaders except ___


Damaged cells release a vasodilator substance called ___

T cell

Which of the following cells mature in the thymus

serum sickness

Sensitivity to animal-derived immune serum may lead to a serious condition called ___


An abnormal reactivity to one's own tissues is called ___

Portal of entry, virulence, Dose, Predisposition

What are four factors that influence the occurrence of infection


What is a substance released by virus-infected cells


What is a substance released by helper T cells

interferes with viral reproduction


stimulates other immune cells to take part in an immune response.



An ___ is a substance produced by B cells and destroys or inactivates a foreign antigen


___ is a group of proteins in the blood, is activated by antigen-antibody complexes and functions to assist the immune system.


___ immunity is inherited


___ immunity develops after birth


___ immunity uses T cells to destroy foreign cells


___ immunity uses antibodies produced by B cells to destroy foreign antigens


A ___ is a poison


a ___ is an altered toxin used to produce active immunity.


_____ is the tendency to react unfavorably to a substance that is normally harmless to most people, such as a peanut allergy

rejection syndrome

___ refers to the normal antigen-antibody reaction that the body mounts against a transplanted organ or tissue

chemical and mechanical barriers, phagocytosis, natural killer cells, inflammation, fever, and interferon

What are some nonspecific factors that help to control infection

cytotoxic, helper, regulator, and memory

Name four types of T cells

plasma cells

What type of cells produce antibodies

smallpox, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, Haemophilum influenzae type b, and pneumococcus.

What are some bacterial diseases for which there are vaccines

poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A and B, chicken pox, influenza, rotavirus, human papilloma virus (HPV), and rabies

What are some viral diseases for which there are vaccines

an antiserum prepared in an animal

What is an immune serum

in emergencies to provide passive immunization.

When is an immune serum used

allergy, autoimmunity, and immune deficiency diseases.

What are some disorders of the immune system

The tendency of every organism to destroy foreign substances

What is the greatest obstacle to tissue transplantation from one individual to another

digestive enzymes

What is contained in the lysosome that joins the phagocytic vesicle

plasma cells and memory cells

What two types of cells develop from activated B cells

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