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41 terms

A & P II - Chapter 17

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virulence
The power of the organism to overcome its host's defenses is called ___
inflammation
Heat, redness, swelling, and pain are classic signs of ___
antigen
Any foreign substance that enters the body and induces an immune response is called a(n) ___
gamma globulin fraction
All antibodies are contained in a portion of the blood plasma termed the ___
allergens
Substances capable of inducing a hypersensitivity reaction are called ___
cytotoxic T cells
Destroy foreign cells directly ___
helper T cells
Release interleukins, which stimulate other cells to join the immune response ___
regulatory T cells
Suppress the immune response in order to prevent overactivity ___
memory T cells
Remember an antigen and start a rapid response if the antigen is contacted again ___
B cells
Manufacture antibodies when activated by antigens ___
neutrophils
All of the following are part of the first line of defense against invaders except ___
histamine
Damaged cells release a vasodilator substance called ___
T cell
Which of the following cells mature in the thymus
serum sickness
Sensitivity to animal-derived immune serum may lead to a serious condition called ___
autoimmunity
An abnormal reactivity to one's own tissues is called ___
Portal of entry, virulence, Dose, Predisposition
What are four factors that influence the occurrence of infection
interferon
What is a substance released by virus-infected cells
interleukin
What is a substance released by helper T cells
interferes with viral reproduction
Interferon
stimulates other immune cells to take part in an immune response.
Interleukin
antibody
An ___ is a substance produced by B cells and destroys or inactivates a foreign antigen
complement
___ is a group of proteins in the blood, is activated by antigen-antibody complexes and functions to assist the immune system.
innate
___ immunity is inherited
adaptive
___ immunity develops after birth
cell-mediated
___ immunity uses T cells to destroy foreign cells
humoral
___ immunity uses antibodies produced by B cells to destroy foreign antigens
toxin
A ___ is a poison
toxoid
a ___ is an altered toxin used to produce active immunity.
allergy
_____ is the tendency to react unfavorably to a substance that is normally harmless to most people, such as a peanut allergy
rejection syndrome
___ refers to the normal antigen-antibody reaction that the body mounts against a transplanted organ or tissue
chemical and mechanical barriers, phagocytosis, natural killer cells, inflammation, fever, and interferon
What are some nonspecific factors that help to control infection
cytotoxic, helper, regulator, and memory
Name four types of T cells
plasma cells
What type of cells produce antibodies
smallpox, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, Haemophilum influenzae type b, and pneumococcus.
What are some bacterial diseases for which there are vaccines
poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A and B, chicken pox, influenza, rotavirus, human papilloma virus (HPV), and rabies
What are some viral diseases for which there are vaccines
an antiserum prepared in an animal
What is an immune serum
in emergencies to provide passive immunization.
When is an immune serum used
allergy, autoimmunity, and immune deficiency diseases.
What are some disorders of the immune system
The tendency of every organism to destroy foreign substances
What is the greatest obstacle to tissue transplantation from one individual to another
digestive enzymes
What is contained in the lysosome that joins the phagocytic vesicle
plasma cells and memory cells
What two types of cells develop from activated B cells