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Ch 10 - Emotions
Terms in this set (30)
Which of the following is accurate regarding emotions?
a. emotions are complex psychophysiological experiences that occur when exposed to certain stimuli.
b. emotions are experienced subjectively as "feeling," which influence our thoughts and behaviors.
c. emotions serve an adaptive evolutionary function, helping us survive and make decisions.
d. all of the above.
Emotions differ from moods because
a. emotions are "normal," moods are "abnormal" (unhealthy) experiences
b. emotions are longer lasting, non-specific affective states, while moods are temporary, intense reactions
c. emotions are temporary, intense reactions, moods are longer lasting, non-specific affective states
d. everybody experiences emotions, but not everybody experiences moods
Emotions- particularly "basic" emotions- are largely governed by a region of the brain called the
b. limbic system
d. node of Ranvier
Which of the following sub-cortical structures is NOT considered a part of the limbic system?
b. cingulate gyrus
c. nucleus accumbens
d. substantia nigra
Psychologist Jaak Panksepp proposed an influential theory of emotions, which posits there are a number of separate "emotional operating systems" built into the brain. Each of these systems utilizes its own specific brain circuitry and chemicals, and each system produces specific behavioral patterns in response to specific types of stimuli.
The ________ plays an important role in emotional experience because it regulates the activity of the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system, and thus produces the general physiological arousal associated with emotional responses.
Walter Cannon coined the term "fight or flight" to describe the body's autonomic physiological responses to stress.
During the first phase of the stress response, the hypothalamus sends rapid "alarm signals" directly through the sympathetic nervous system to the _______, which responds by rapidly releasing _______.
a. thymus glands; cortisol
b. gonads; testosterone and estrogen
c. adrenal glands; adrenaline
d. pancreas; insulin
Which of the following is not a physiological change initiated by stress hormones during the fight or flight response?
a. increased heart rate and blood pressure
b. increased muscle tension and perspiration
c. inhibition of non-essential body activities
d. increased pain awareness and reduced sensory acuity
When the immediate stressor has passed, the _____ nervous system responds by shutting down emergency responses, calming the body and restoring normal functioning.
the Hypothalamus signals the Pituitary gland, which activates the cortex of the Adrenal gland
The second phase of the stress response has been called the HPA axis because
Glucocorticoids are stress hormones, released by the cortex of the adrenals gland. The best known glucocorticoid is _________.
What role do glucocortitcoids play in the stress response?
a. Elevate blood-sugar levels
b. Increase heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate
c. Divert blood flow from the skin to large muscles
d. All of the above
Although cortisol levels in the bloodstream decline quickly after a stressor, adrenaline levels remain elevated and take longer to return to baseline levels.
Chronic, sustained exposure to stress hormones, particularly glucocorticoids, can cause
a. chronic suppression of the immune system
b. loss of bone mass and damage to muscles and organs
c. damage to brain tissue, especially the hippocampus
d. all of the above
A small limbic structure called the nucleus accumbens serves as the brain's primary _______ center.
If we were to attach an electrode to your nucleus accumbens electrically stimulate it, you would experience intense feelings of
The reward circuit is part of which emotional operating system proposed by Jaak Panksepp?
The key neurotransmitter used by the reward circuit, and particularly by the nucleus accumbens, is
The ______, a pair of small, almond-shaped nuclei in the limbic system, receives sensory info form the environment and evaluates it for emotional significance
The amygdala, which house several distinct nuclei, plays a prominent role in generating virtually all of our primary emotions.
What role does the amygdala play in the memory system?
a. stores implicit procedural memories for performing rote actions and behaviors
b. retrieves autobiographical memories from long-term storage
c. helps to store vivid memories for emotionally arousing events
d. plays no role in the memory system
The amygdala is the first part of the brain to receive sensory information from the ________; it rapidly evaluates that sensory input for signs of emotional salience and orchestrates rapid emotional reponses
Psychologist Joseph Le DOux has shown that sensory information reaches the amygdala via two parallel pathways: the "low road" and the "high road." Which of the following statements about the "low road" is accurate?
a. it is much slower, carrying info first to the cortex and then to the amygdala
b. it allows for "quick and dirty," immediate responses to potentially dangerous situations
c. it allows for conscious, rational evaluation of sensory experiences and responses
d. both A and C
rage-anger and fear
The amygdala is part of which emotional operating system proposed by Jaak Panksepp?
Lesions to the amygdala can result in a profound impairment called Kluver-Bucy Syndrome, in which animals or people become
a. excessively angry and aggressive
b. excessively talkative and sociable
c. inappropriately fearless and indifferent to risk
d. uncoordinated and clumysy
Which of the following is not a function of the septum?
a. it functions as an emotional modulator, adjusting the intensity of emotional responses
b. it helps to coordinate fine muscle movements and focuses motor control
c. it produces increased cognitive functions, including alertness, attentiveness, and memory
d. it is a key part of the brain's reward circuit and its particularly involved in sexual pleasures
The anterior cingulate gyrus plays a key role in
a. storing emotional memories
b. coordinating fine muscle movements
c. detecting cognitive errors
d. producing feelings of anger and rage
Which of the following symptoms would you expect to find in an individual whose anterior cingulate gyrus had been lesioned?
a. increased cognitive flexibility
b. loss of affectionate and social behavior
c. heightened feelings of anxiety and panic
d. increased emotional stability
Over-activity of the anterior cingulate gyrus is associated with difficulty adapting to change and decreased cognitive flexibility. It is also associated with an increased focus on negative thoughts and memories, and preoccupation with possible errors. Thus, dysfunction of this region plays a key role in which disorder?
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