Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 1: Endocrinology
Terms in this set (54)
Down-regulation of receptors
The cell, in the presence of a hormone, lowers the number of receptors to decrease sensitivity to the hormone.
Up-regulation of receptors
The cell, in the absence of a hormone, increase the number of receptors to increase sensitivity to the hormone.
Difference between endocrine and exocrine glands
Endocrine glands do not have ducts, exocrine glands have ducts.
lipid derivative hormones
Lipid-soluble and able to pass through a cell membrane. Steroid hormones from cholesterol.
chains of amino acids; most are synthesized as prohormones. Water-soluble and unable to pass through cell membrane.
amino acid derivative hormones
Hormones that are synthesized by modifying amino acids. Most amino acid-derivative hormones act via secondary messengers, while some act in a fashion similar to steroid hormones. Very small in size.
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues. Increase or decrease rate of stimulus. Turns enzyme/membrane "on" or "off."
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
Digestive tract hormones
coordinate digestive system functions, glucose metabolism and appetite
erythropoietin, calcitrol, and renin
androgens, testosterone and inhibin
Estrogen, progesterone, inhibin
Releases insulin and glucagon, posterior to stomach in the loop of the duodenum passing through to the spleen.
Attached to superior surface of kidneys. Epinephrine and norepinephrine primary hormones.
outer section of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens
Anterior of neck, 2 lobes with an isthmus in the middle. Releases calcitonin, thyroxine (t4) and trilodythyronine (t3)
in the neck; controls the calcium levels in the body, and normalizes bone growth. Releases parathyroid hormone (PTH) located on posterior surface of thyroid
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Located inferior to hypothalamus. Regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
located in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin and serotonin
Base of brain, superior to pituitary gland. Releases ADH, oxytocin, and regulatory hormones.
organs of the endocrine system
When blood glucose rises (Pancreas)
Beta cells release insulin to stimulate transport of glucose across plasma membrane.
When blood glucose falls (Pancreas)
Alpha cells release glucagon, stimulate glucose release by liver.
~99% of pancreatic volume, pancreatic acini and attached ducts. part of the pancreas that secretes digestive enzymes and bicarbonate into the duodenal lumen
Islets of Langerhans, alpha, beta, and delta cells.
secrete somatostatin, peptide hormon identical to GH-IH.
Stimulates breakdown of glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver, and triglycerides in adipose. Stimulates production of glucose in liver (gluconeogenesis)
The anterior part of the adenohypophysis that is the major secretory part of the gland.
where the cells of the anterior pituitary meet the cells of the posterior pituitary; makes melanocyte-stimulating hormone (in lower vertbreates, this works to provide skin coloration); acts on melanopores
hormones of the pars distalis
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
hormone of the pars intermedia
Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell (ovum) and/or stimulation of sperm maturation
luteinizing hormone (LH)
causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum; causes the secretion of testosterone in the testes
stimulates milk production
hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland that stimulates growth, protein synthesis, lipid mobilizations, and catabolism.
mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) to increase renal absorption of sodium and water. Increases urinary loss of potassium.
glucocorticoids to release amino acids from muscle and lipids from adipose. Promotes gluconeugenesis, anti-inflammatory. (Targets kidneys)
androgens, not important in adult testosterone folks, increases bone, muscle growth and blood formation in estrogen-folks and kids.
epinephrine and norepinephrine. Increases heart activity, blood pressure, glycogen breakdown, blood glucose, releases lipids from adipose. (Internal portion of adrenal glands)
A water soluble hormone that binds to its receptor at the outer surface of the plasma membrane.
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein.
A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G protein-coupled receptor, to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell.
A second messenger derived from ATP and triggers specific cellular changes in metabolic regulation
Regions of anterior lobe of pituitary gland
Pars distalis, pars tuberalis, pars intermedia
Hypothalamus hormones: target and effect
anterior pituitary, modify activity. Releasing hormone and inhibiting hormone.
posterior lobe of pituitary gland
secretes antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin (aka neurohypophysis)
Secreted by the thyroid gland; also called tetraiodothyronine. T4 increases metabolism in cells. Contains four iodide ions
Secreted by thyroid gland. Affects nearly every body function including growth, metabolism, temperature, and heart rate. Contains three iodide ions.
Other Quizlet sets
INFO-I308 Chapter 2 Quiz: Modeling Data in the Org…
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Meiosis