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Psychology Module 1
Terms in this set (43)
The science of psychology developed primarily from biology and
one of the earliest branches of scientific psychology was (?), which emphasized studying the fundamental elements of mind or consciousness.
Another early branch of psychology, which focused more on the functions of the mind than the structure of the mind was called (?)
Because he established the first scientific laboratory for the study of psychology in (?) in (?), historians credit (?) with being the founder of psychology.
Germany, 1879, Wilhelm Wundt
Psychology is currently defined as the scientific study of (?) and (?)
behavior, mental processes
Each person is a complex system existing within a larger social system. Accordingly, it makes sense to seek explanations of thought and emotion from various (?)
how the body and brain enable emotions, mental processes, and behavior
The roles of inherited tendencies that have proven adaptive in humans
How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
how we learn observable responses
how we think and perform other mental processes
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
a. What kinds of facial expressions, actions, and verbalizations distinguish happy people from less happy people? What kinds of observable conditions in the environment seem to have an influence on a person's reported level of happiness?
b. How do an individual's expectations, perceptions, and interpretations of their circumstances affect their level of happiness?
c. Do different people from different countries around the world vary in their average level of happiness? In what ways do people's expressions of their level of happiness or unhappiness vary according to cultural influences?
d. Do happy and unhappy people have differences in their patterns of brain chemistry or brain activity?
e. Is there a selective survival advantage in being relatively happy most of the time? Are happy people more likely than unhappy people to notice and correct problems that threaten their survival? Do happy people attract mates more readily and reproduce more offspring?
f. Might people be happy or unhappy for reasons they cannot fully know, based on influences at an unconscious level of the mind?
g. To what extent do hereditary factors contribute to happiness?Do twin studies reveal greater similarities in the level of happiness of identical twins than of fraternal twins? Does the happiness level of an adopted person correspond more closely to the happiness of their biological parent or their adoptive parent?
Common sense and intuition can often be misleading. For example, whether given either a summary of actual research findings or a summary that runs opposite to the real result, people tend to view (?) as obvious common sense. This tendency is known as the (?) which has sometimes been called the (?) phenomenon.
the real result, hindsight bias, I-knew-it-all-along
Another pitfall of common sense is the (?) phenomenon-our tendency to be (?) in our judgements.
overconfindence, more confident than correct
To avoid some of the limitations of relying on common sense, psychologists need to make careful and objective measurements, basing their conclusions on (?)
Although each perspective has limitations, the various perspectives tend to be (?)
What are the steps of the scientific method?
observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion
What is step one of the scientific method?
Identify the research problem
What is step two of the scientific method?
develope a theory
What is step three of the scientific method?
Form a hypothesis
What is step four of the scientific method?
design study to investigate the problem
What is step five of the scientific method?
Collect and Analyze data
What is step six of the scientific method?
What is step seven of the scientific method?
A research study typically begins with the formulation of a testable proposition, known as a (?), which can be based on an informal hunch, on previous research, or might be derived from a (?)
Before a researcher can conduct a test of a particular hypothesis (such as the idea that there is a relationship between people's happiness and their health) (?) are needed specifying exactly how each major concept is to be (?) within the research study.
Psychologists have (?) broad types of research methods available to them, and each method has specific (?)
three, strengths and limitations
Psychologists use case study, surveys, and naturalistic observations as ways to arrive at (?) of behavior.
Using the case study method, scientists study (?) individuals at a time, usually in (?) depth than with other research methods. In contrast, surveys generally provide (?) depth on (?) individuals.
one or a few, more, less, more
Researchers who observe and record behavior in it's natural setting are using the method known as (?). List some advantages and limitations of this method.
Descriptive research method. Pros: to observe the phenomenon in it's natural habitat w/o bias, effective analysis method.
limitations: not always ethical, can have a bias that effects the results.
The larger target group whose attitudes or opinions a surveyor wishes to characterize is call the (?) while the set of individuals actually selected from that group to participate in the survey is termed the (?). The most common method of drawing a representative sample is (?) from the target population.
population, unrepresentative sample, random sampling
Researchers investigate the naturally occurring associations between different things by the means of (?) studies. When one thing is found to vary in association with another, we can say that these two variables (?). The degree to which one variable (such as health) varies along with another (such as happiness) can be expressed with a statistic called the (?). If two variables are found to correlate, then we can say that a change in one of these (?) a change in the other.
correlational, correlate, correlation coefficient, predicts
Given that taller people tend to weigh more and shorter people tend to weigh less, we would probably find that there is a (?) correlation between height and body weight. But because there are short people that are unusually heavy and tall people who are unusually light, the correlation coefficient relating height and weight (?) a perfect correlation of +1.0
positive, is not
A negative correlation would be present when we see that one variable increases as another variable (?).
When correlation between two variables is discovered, knowing one of the variables allows us to (?) the other variable; but the correlation does not provide an (?)
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