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Psychology in Everyday Life Chapter 1 3 4 and 5
Terms in this set (510)
Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different parenting styles are encouraged among various ethnic groups?
In which type of research would an investigator manipulate at least one factor and observe its effect on some behavior or mental process?
Suppose that people who see a lot of violent movies are also particularly likely to behave aggressively. This relationship would NOT necessarily indicate that watching violence influences aggressive behavior because
correlation does not prove causation
All those in a group being studied make up the
Suppose psychologists discovered that people with a higher socioeconomic status are less satisfied with their marriages than people with a lower socioeconomic status are. This would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are
Professor James is studying how mice navigate a new maze. His research study is most consistent with a ________ perspective.
Professor Jones believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.
Professor Caste just finished running data collection for her research study. When participants have completed the study, Professor Caste explains to them the true purpose of the study and any deceptions that were used. Her explanations are referred to as
Our tendency to believe we know more than we do best illustrates
Assessing how well one variable predicts another variable is to ________ as detecting cause-effect relationships between different variables is to ________.
correlational research; experimental research
A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates
In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes
deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment
Professor Alvarez is studying divided attention and its impact on memory. This research topic is consistent with
Professor Martinez believes that attractive people are more sensitive, more successful, more socially skilled, and handsome men will be more successful in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of
Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
Mary Whiton Calkins
Professor Warburton is interested in memory processes and how retrieval of information is influenced by current schema activation. Which field of psychology does he study?
Psychological research indicates that people who are both happier and healthier than average tend to be those who
give priority to relationships with supportive friends
A theory is an explanation using principles that ________ observations and ________ behaviors or events.
Accurately hitting a baseball a split second before we consciously recognize that the ball has reached our bat best illustrates our capacity for
To study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems by working together; other participants were told to solve problems by working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ________ group.
Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?
The experimental treatment is absent
Suppose the correlation between children's body weight and their reading ability is -1.00. This would mean that
among children; better reading ability is associated with lower body weight
Which early school of thought in psychology focused on how the mind works?
Studying one individual or group in depth is to ________ as observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations is to ________.
case study; naturalistic observation
To discover the extent to which religious beliefs can be used to predict political preferences, Professor Steele and his colleagues are most likely to use
The case study is a research method in which
a single individual is studied in great depth
The ethics codes of the APA and Britain's BPS urge researchers to
explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed
The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
A survey revealed that children with relatively high self-esteem tend to picture God as kind and loving, while those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as angry. The researchers concluded that the children's self-esteem had influenced their views of God. This conclusion best illustrates the danger of
thinking that association proves causation
Dr. McDowell conducts research on the relationship between adults' language skills and their capacity to solve mathematical problems. Dr. McDowell is most likely a _________ psychologist.
Professor Sampson carefully observes and records the behaviors of young adults as they meet at the local night club to track the development of their social skills. Professor Sampson is most clearly engaged in
Being randomly assigned to the experimental group in a research project involves being assigned
to that group by chance
Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?
Professor Stone wants to determine how stereotype threat can affect test performance. Specifically, he wants to prove that stereotype threat causes poor test performance. Professor Stone must use which research design?
The SQ3R study method emphasizes the importance of
Which perspective in psychology is most likely to focus on how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures?
Professor Stevens wants to examine the relationship between false news and negative attitudes about migrants. Professor Stevens' research would be an example of
Testing hypotheses and refining theories in light of those tests is central to
the scientific method
We live in a family that resides in a community that is part of a larger society. This demonstrates that we are
Research on animal subjects has demonstrated that
animals can benefit from research
Dr. Salvia is studying how happiness in late adulthood relates to a person's social network and social connectedness. Her approach is called
Three key elements of the scientific attitude are
curiosity, skepticism, humility
The enduring traditions, attitudes, ideas, and behaviors shared by a large group of people form their
The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how
people encode, process, store, and retrieve information
How are Jennifer and Daniel likely to differ?
One research team studied the ups and downs of human moods by counting positive and negative words in 504 million Twitter messages from 84 countries. The researchers' method best illustrates the use of
Martin Seligman calls for a positive psychology that focuses on such topics as
A(n) ________ is said to be double-blind when the participants and the research staff are unaware of who has received an actual treatment and who has not.
Who was the American philosopher who shared his love of psychology in his 1890 textbook?
Depression and suicide are more common in North America today than they were a century ago. But in both periods, pessimistic thinking and feelings of loneliness correspond to a heightened risk of depression and suicide. This best illustrates that ________ play a role in depression and suicide in varied settings.
common underlying principles
In a study of the effects of drinking coffee, some participants drank a decaf coffee that actually smelled and tasted like coffee. This decaf coffee was a
In the 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology led the field back to its early interest in the scientific study of
Which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the political beliefs of Americans and their attitudes toward welfare?
Professor Craske conducts basic research on the psychological, biological, and behavioral factors that contribute to heart disease. She is most likely a
Which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?
Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of research on the benefits of running a mile every day. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of the findings?
Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for
detecting human similarities and differences
Which term refers to the behavioral characteristics that people associate with girls, boys, men, or women?
Memory processes are to a ________ perspective as cultures are to a ________ perspective.
cognitive; social cultural
Which subfield in psychology investigates persistent traits?
Researchers who want to isolate a cause-effect relationship among factors will
both manipulate factors of interest and hold other factors constant
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to isolate
causes from effects
Although we may be unaware of our gender prejudices, they often influence the way we consciously perceive men and women. This best illustrates
A major issue that has emerged from debates over the use of animals in psychological research centers on
what safeguards should protect the well-being of animals used in research
Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of lion societies in the jungle are using a research method known as
Psychologists study animals because
similar processes often underlie animal and human behavior
Dr. Bertrand focuses on ways to improve worker morale and productivity. Dr. Bertrand is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
A descriptive technique of monitoring and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation is called
Psychological research indicates that regular aerobic exercise is an effective way to minimize
In an experimental study, men with erectile disorder received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage (none versus peak dosage) was the
The fact that hundreds of thousands of teens engage in school walkouts and marches to seek gun law reform in the United States demonstrates that teens
can think logically about abstract topics
Gabrielle is 4 years old and is standing in front of the TV while watching a football game. Her father is also trying to watch, but Gabrielle is standing right in front of him. Gabrielle doesn't realize that she is blocking her father's view. This is an example of
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the ________ stage lasts from birth to almost 2 years of age. During this stage, infants know their world in terms of motor activities and sensory impressions.
Veronica has experienced severe bullying by her peers. Which of the following is true regarding Veronica?
She is likely to experience poor physical health and greater psychological distress
Babies who are generally cheerful, relaxed, and have predictable feeding and sleeping schedules are considered to have a(n) ________ temperament.
Adolescents are most likely to be influenced by their parents with respect to ________, and they are most likely to be influenced by their peers with respect to ________.
faith; clothing preferences
Alexander, the youngest child of a high school gym teacher, was able to roll over at 3 months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor development was largely due to
People have always responded so positively to Amanda's bubbly personality that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates the
interaction of heredity and environment
By about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates
Object permanence is the understanding that
things continue to exist even when they are not perceived
Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Zack can't decide what he wants to do with his life. He has tried several different jobs but has been fired for lack of effort each time. According to Erikson, Zack best illustrates
Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in their abilities and ________ similar in their interests.
According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people first begin to
Five-year-old Stan can't remember any events from a family cruise to Bermuda when he was 2 1/2 years old. This best illustrates
People experience a series of physical changes and sexual maturation
Although Aaron didn't care for the taste of fried squid, he began eating it when he saw that his classmates were doing so. His behavior best illustrates the importance of
Which of the following is NOT true regarding child-raising practices?
Western parents emphasize obedience, respect, and sensitivity to others
Gloria plays Luminosity daily because she believes that it will improve her cognition and mental performance. Recent research has found that brain-training programs such as Luminosity
do not generally improve mental performance
DNA is a molecule made up of two strands connected in a
The egocentrism of preschoolers was most strongly emphasized by
Piaget's cognitive development theory
Brain maturation provides us with a wealth of neural connections, some of which are further strengthened by the experience of sights and sounds, touches and movements. This best illustrates that nature and nurture interact to sculpt our
According to Freud, a healthy adult is one who
can love and work
Maturation is to education as ________ is to ________.
Over the past two years, Mrs. Packwood, who is 79 years old, has suffered several bouts of pneumonia. This is most likely due to
a weakening immune system
Professor Patel suggested that humans pair-bond because this practice encouraged the cooperative nurture and survival of children. The professor's suggestion best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.
Which of the following is a benefit of adolescent romantic relationships?
For most of us, they are a source of great pleasure
Using a large box to symbolize a boat and brooms to symbolize fishing poles, Jim and Tommy imagined themselves catching fish out of a lake. The children are most clearly demonstrating
Older people are NOT increasingly susceptible to
common cold viruses
Human sperm cells ________ than egg cells.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding adolescence in Western cultures?
Teens are entering adulthood later than in other cultures
According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about events first develops during the ________ stage.
Infants normally become attached to caregivers who are comfortable and
Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence, a person will never master any language because of the ________ of unemployed neural connections.
Melissa is extremely uncomfortable getting close to other people. She will do almost anything to maintain her distance from others. Melissa may have an insecure
avoidant attachment style
A zygote is a(n)
Cultural traditions in ________ discourage caregivers from talking with young children.
Contemporary researchers have been able to
identify conceptual abilities that Piaget did not
Adolescence is typically a time of
diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence
Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones.
the age-related timing but not the sequence
Ana would like to marry one day. For her, an ideal mate would be all of the following EXCEPT
a college drop-out
Negligent parents are especially likely to be
Children's anxiety over separation from parents peaks at around ________ months and then gradually declines.
Which of the following people is most likely to enjoy an enduring marriage?
Zach who smiled all the time as a child
Stanley met Rosalie when they sat next to each other on a flight to Hawaii. This led to the beginning of a relationship that resulted in marriage. This best illustrates that the directions in which our lives develop are influenced by
Thirteen-year-old Stephanie was asked, "What would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went deaf?" She responded, "Those who had previously been deaf would become leaders." Stephanie's answer indicates she is in the ________ stage of development.
Distinguishing between very gradual and very abrupt developmental changes over the life span is most central to the major issue of
continuity and stages
Mr. Nixon refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Nixon's reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.
Walter Mischel gave preschoolers a choice between one marshmallow now and two marshmallows when he returned a few minutes later. Children who chose to wait for two marshmallows demonstrated
delay of gratification
If Piaget pictured the developing child as a young ________, Vygotsky pictured the developing child as a young ________.
Psychologist Jonathan Haidt has described our moral intuitions as
quick gut feelings
Bree has to select a college major. She has always wondered about what makes people who they are and how people change over time. Based on this, she might be interested in
The study of influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change is called
As an infant, Jerome was isolated and had no physical contact with his caregivers. As a result, he failed to form proper attachments with others in adulthood. This demonstrates that
our genetic predisposition to form attachments can be "turned off" by life experiences
In the strange situation experiment, toddlers with an anxious attachment to their mothers were most likely to
cling to their mothers and ignore new surroundings
The MacPhersons set strict rules for their children's behavior and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the MacPhersons as ________ parents.
Daniel engages in physical exercise regularly. Which of the following is NOT a benefit he is likely to experience?
increased risk for heart disease
Beverly suffers from painful leg cramps. Smoking marijuana would reduce her pain, but she thinks it would be wrong to smoke marijuana because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Beverly is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ level of morality.
Stacey has been caught pulling the cat's tail and hitting it on the head. Which of the following is a likely outcome?
Stacey is likely to be violent as an adult
The fetus is the
developing organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation
were incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity
A strong sense of family self is likely to be characteristic of those who grow up in cultures that value
The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by
Some individuals constantly crave acceptance in romantic relationships but remain highly vigilant and sensitive to any signs of possible rejection. These people are said to demonstrate an insecure
anxious attachment style
Six-year-old Anne effectively restrained herself from touching the cookies that her mother had just taken out of the oven by inaudibly whispering the word "hot." The advantage of her verbal self-control tactic was most clearly highlighted by
Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called
Evidence that preschoolers develop a theory of mind suggests that Piaget overestimated young children's
Alcohol may cause fetal damage by leaving chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off. This best illustrates
an epigenetic effect
The genome refers to an organism's complete set of
When placed in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the Harlows' infant monkeys demonstrated signs of
DNA is a ________ made up of two strands connected in a double helix.
Approximately ________ children in the United States have visible effects of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.
1 in 30
Beverly is 70 years old and exercises regularly. Her physician commends her for her efforts and explains how regular exercise can help maintain telomeres, which can actually slow the progression of
Abram cried when his mother left him at their neighbor's house, and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Abram showed signs of
Based on a fraudulent 1998 study, some parents were misled into thinking that the childhood MMR vaccine increased the risk of
autism spectrum disorder
During a routine prenatal exam, Ilene's obstetrician detected the heartbeat of her future baby. If this was the earliest time the heart began beating, the developing person would be referred to as a(n)
The age at which people are expected to leave home, get a job, and marry has changed dramatically in Wallonia over the past 50 years. Developmentalists would say that the country's ________ has been altered.
Abigail is a freshman in her first semester of college. She moved from her parents' home to live in residential housing on campus. Thus far, she is adjusting well. She is able to adjust so well in large part because of her
secure attachment to her parents
Chromosomes are threadlike structures made of
Thomas was bullied as a child but has become a well-adjusted adult. This demonstrates that Thomas is
Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ________ morality.
Chris counted a total of 10 logs stacked in a single pile. When the pile was knocked over and the logs were scattered in front of him, he knew that there were still 10 logs. This indicates that Chris has reached the ________ stage of development.
Adolescence extends from
the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood
Will anxious children grow up to be fearful or relaxed adults? This question most directly highlights the issue of
stability and change
The first menstrual period, called menarche, is a maturational milestone most directly associated with
According to Piaget, accommodation refers to
adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences
The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development of our personal values best illustrates the influence of
Who are likely to show the greatest similarity in temperament?
Ruth and Ramona, identical twins
From ages 3 to 6, the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the
According to Piaget, schemas are
people's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences
When children grow up and leave home, parents most frequently report feeling
During the early teen years, egocentrism endures, and teens begin imagining what others are thinking about them and develop what is called
an imaginary audience
Identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities. But we should be cautious about attributing these similarities to shared genes because
any two strangers are likely to share many coincidental similarities
Putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of a smothering crib death has been associated with a slight delay in children's
According to Erikson, teens who suffer role confusion have not yet
solidified a sense of identity
Based on what researchers have learned about the environment and development, what is the expected outcome of a lack of stimulation during human development?
both brain and cognitive development will slow down
Stan and Jane have not set any rules for how their two young children should behave, usually allowing them to do whatever they want. Psychologists would characterize Stan and Jane as ________ parents.
Which of the following people is more likely to experience tip-of-the-tongue forgetting?
Margaret who is 60 years old
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view
The human tendency to stand before walking is an illustration of
Dr. Sali believes that children who are not visually stimulated during the first four months of their infancy will never develop normal visual perception skills. Obviously, Dr. Sali believes that this phase of development is a(n)
At age 12, Sven is happy, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sven's parents are
Juan and Raul are biologically related nontwin siblings raised in the same home. Patty and Alice are biologically unrelated children adopted at birth and raised as siblings in the same home. People are likely to ________ the personality similarities of Juan and Raul and ________ the personality similarities of Patty and Alice.
Alonza has a terminal illness and has been given a short period of time to live. Which of the following best describes how she feels?
She is likely to be more positive
Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs are called ________ twins.
Little Kim will play with children she doesn't know only if her mother first reassures her that it is okay to do so. This best illustrates the adaptive value of
Jenny asked her toddler to "show Mommy your art." Her toddler then held up the picture facing her own eyes. This is an example of
Abigail believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of
continuity and stages
The understanding that biological, psychological, and social-cultural forces interact in development supports which major issue in developmental psychology?
nature and nurture
Maturation refers to
biological growth processes that are mostly independent of experience
The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing, is called
Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during
Children who have survived severe or prolonged abuse are at increased risk for
Marleen drank contaminated water, which contained toxic molecules that blocked the expression of some of her genes. As a result, she is now highly allergic to certain foods. This best illustrates the impact of
The labels "easy" and "difficult" are used to refer to differences among infants in
The placenta develops from many of the outer cells of the
The developmental stage of adolescence is likely to be briefest in cultures where teens are
Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for
By gradually sharing increasingly intimate information about their lives, Jerry and Jill developed a satisfying and committed romantic relationship. This best illustrates the value of
Fidgety babies with an intense and very emotionally reactive temperament tend to be
irritable and unpredictable
The zygote's inner cells
become the embryo
The use of social media has been associated with an increase in
both teen depression and suicide rates
Erik Erikson suggested that a major task of adulthood was to develop a sense of contributing to the world by being productive. According to Erikson, those who do this effectively demonstrate
Teens who smoke typically have friends who smoke. To avoid overestimating the impact of peer pressure on teen's smoking habits, it would make most sense to consider the importance of
a selection effect
The Harlows' infant monkeys used an artificial cloth mother as a secure base for
The fact that genetic differences can be amplified by nurture demonstrates that
our experiences help form us
Maurice and Oliver are both going through puberty. The two boys
may differ in the age-related timing but not the sequence of their pubertal development
Most children who have coped with adversity go on to lead socially meaningful and productive lives. This best illustrates
Mrs. Jones cut Lorena's sausage into eight pieces and Jenn's into six pieces. Jenn cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much sausage as Lorena. Piaget would say that Jenn doesn't understand the principle of
The human tendency to use nouns before adjectives is an illustration of
A teratogen is a(n)
substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child
In late adulthood, Mr. Bart has become increasingly likely to make socially impolite remarks about other people's appearance or mannerisms. His blunt comments are most likely to indicate late life shrinkage of the ________ lobes.
The aging brain partly compensates for a loss of brain cells by recruiting and reorganizing existing neural networks. This best illustrates
Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys in the pediatrician's waiting room, little Alexa tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Alexa most clearly shows signs of
Stephanie's mother is secure and responsive to Stephanie's needs. Which of the following can be predicted about Stephanie?
She is likely to have good grades and strong friendships
Simone was born with fetal alcohol syndrome. How could you determine that this is the case when first meeting Simone?
She may have noticeable physical deformities, such as abnormal facial features.
The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called
According to Piaget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the ________ stage.
A disorder that appears in childhood involving deficiencies in communication, rigidly fixated interests, and repetitive behaviors is known as
autism spectrum disorder
Piaget and Kohlberg believed that most moral action resulted from moral reasoning. More recent research by Haidt suggests that much of our moral action occurs as a result of
unconscious, automatic thinking
Dr. Stott has devoted his career to investigating the influence of genetic and environmental factors on developmental processes. Which major issue in developmental psychology is he most interested in?
nature and nurture
If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to
recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape
Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be
Research indicates that the high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers also tend to
have the most intimate relationships with girlfriends
Experiencing ________ has been found to aid resilience in later life.
some childhood adversity
Brenda's senior photos show her with a wide smile. When comparing these photos with earlier ones, we see the same wide smile. According to one research study of 306 U.S. college graduates, what may be expected as Brenda moves through life?
She is likely to have a long, enduring marriage
If children sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable, this most clearly indicates
Researchers studied the effects of exercise on the physical health of more than 5000 residents in one locale throughout their middle and late adulthoods. The research best illustrates a ________ study.
According to Piaget, a person develops an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived during the ________ stage
Clay is 86 years old and feels that his life has been meaningful and worthwhile. According to Erikson, Clay is demonstrating
Research has found that a long marriage is a predictor of all of the following EXCEPT
decreased physical health
The biochemical code for eye color is transmitted from parents to offspring by
Which of the following is a predictor of work happiness?
having a career that matches your interests
Poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to enable one to take another's viewpoint is most clearly linked with
autism spectrum disorder
Young teens are not fully equipped for curbing risky behavior or making long-term plans because of the incomplete maturation of their
Researchers who emphasize learning and experience tend to view development as ________; those who emphasize maturation tend to view development as ________.
continuous; occurring in stages
As Jackson moves through the adolescent years, his frontal lobes will continue to develop. Which of the following CANNOT be attributed to this development?
improved visual-spatial skills
A mother who is slow in responding to her infant's cries of distress is most likely to encourage
Four-year-old Claire mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of
When considering the development of secure attachments, nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.
temperament; responsive parenting
Critics have noted that Kohlberg's theory of moral development is biased against ________ societies.
Twin and adoption studies have been most helpful for teasing apart the influences of
heredity and environment
Authoritative parents are likely to have children who
have high self-esteem and are self-reliant
Sedentary older adults randomly assigned to aerobic exercise programs exhibit
reduced risk of significant cognitive decline
Chromosomes are contained within
all of these types of cells
As noted in the text, a person who has been abused as a child may become abusive as a parent. This best illustrates the importance of
According to Erikson, adolescence is to identity as late adulthood is to
According to Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and reliable is referred to as
Which of the following is NOT a major issue in developmental psychology?
predictability and unpredictability
Children of ________ parents often have poor academic and social outcomes.
According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality.
Ideas about one's own and others' feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, along with the behaviors these might predict, are said to constitute
a theory of mind
Based on current statistics, which of the following people is most likely to report experiencing sexual victimization?
Maria, who is multiracial and 22 years old
Which theoretical perspective can explain why behavior differences between men and women are smaller in cultures with greater gender equality?
social learning theory
Condoms are most helpful in protecting against
In the past, mothers typically engaged in ________. Today's mothers typically engage in ________.
nearly twice as much child care as fathers; nearly twice as much child care as fathers
During pubertal development, a surge of hormones triggers a variety of visible physical changes. For instance, the pituitary gland releases hormones that stimulate the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands then release hormones that stimulate all of the following in females, EXCEPT
Research has demonstrated that genetic females born with only one normal X chromosome are likely to
struggle with their gender identity
Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that
the reported backgrounds of gay/lesbian and heterosexual people are similar
During the resolution stage of the sexual response cycle, men are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in arousal if
they have just experienced orgasm
Which of the following is NOT a recommendation for reducing sexual aggression?
discourage victims from sharing their experiences publicly
The first stage of the sexual response cycle is
an excitement stage
Sixteen-year-old Rashad is on his high school diving team. While they are practicing, a group of girls from the girls' swim team stop by. Rashad immediately tries increasingly risky dives while the girls watch. If Rashad's hormone levels were checked at that time, we are likely to find
an increase in his testosterone level
The biopsychosocial approach is
an integrated understanding of sexual motivation in terms of sex hormones, sexual fantasies, and cultural values.
Which of the following is most clearly NOT true with respect to sexual orientation?
same-sex attraction is linked with problems during childhood involving relationships with parents
Those whose sexual attraction is not restricted to any sex or gender identity are said to have a(n) ________ orientation.
According to evolutionary psychologists, gender differences exist
when men and women are faced with different adaptive challenges, such as reproduction
Social learning theory emphasizes that
observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process
The period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing is called
The sex chromosome found in both males and females is called the ________ chromosome.
Which of the following terms refers to the behavioral characteristics that people associate with boy, girl, man,and woman?
Marcia, Ida, and Derrick are talking about neighborhood conditions. Which of the following events is most likely to occur?
Derrick interrupts Marcia
Teens are more likely to delay sex if they have ________ levels of intelligence and ________ levels of religious engagement.
During ________, excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase.
the plateau stage
Masters and Johnson conducted research on
the sexual response cycle
Which of the following people is most likely to behave aggressively?
Tom, who is in his thirties and works full-time
Those who are not attracted to anyone are said to have a(n) ________ orientation.
By injecting female animals with estrogens, researchers can increase the animals'
Breeanna has inherited a tendency to be sexually attracted to handsome men. If this trait increases her chances of survival and reproductive success, it will likely be passed on to her female offspring. This best illustrates
Research has found that an animal's sexual orientation can be altered by
manipulation of prenatal hormone levels
Maddox spends most of his money on fancy suits and expensive jewelry to win the sexual affection of women he finds attractive. Evolutionary psychologists would most likely say that his behavior is due to
Dwayne has abnormally low testosterone levels. What can be expected if he undergoes testosterone-replacement therapy?
He will experience an increase in sexual desire and energy.
Monica is a genetic female who was born with only one X chromosome. Her condition is known as
At the beginning of the twentieth century, only one country in the world granted women the right to vote. Effective 2015, all countries granted that right. This best illustrates a dramatic shift in
The belief that boys have shorter hair than girls is a
In contrast to sex, which is solely defined by ________ characteristics, the definition of gender involves ________ characteristics.
biologically influenced; behavioral
When a couple engages in sexual intercourse within the context of a committed relationship rather than as a one-night sexual hook-up, they are more likely to experience
Equal rights for people who have a same-sex or bisexual orientation are most likely to be favored by those who
understand that sexual orientation is as a result of biological and prenatal differences
Teens who use alcohol prior to sexual intercourse experience
reduced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms
As compared with Amber, David is more likely to do all of the following EXCEPT
seek wealth in a partner
Although Victor is genetically male, he sometimes dresses in women's clothes to express his strong sense of identity as a female. Victor could best be described as
The concept of tend and befriend describes
women's tendency to turn to others for support
More than half of Americans with AIDS are between the ages of
30 and 49
In Europe and the United States, about ________ percent of men and about ________ percent of women have exclusively same-sex attractions.
3 or 4; 2
Most of us receive ________ chromosomes from our mother and ________ chromosomes from our father.
Secretions of sex hormones during the fourth and fifth months of prenatal development tilt the fetal brain toward
male or female patterns
Considering oneself to be a female is to ________ as behaving in a manner to align with social expectations for females is to ________.
gender identity; gender roles
Women are naturally inclined to be choosier than men about whom they select as a mate because they are more limited than men in the number of children they can have. This statement best illustrates the logic of
The body structures that enable reproduction are the
primary sex characteristics
Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that
sexual desire rises slightly at ovulation among women with mates
Bryson is sexually attracted to members of the other gender. He can best be described as
Heterosexual women are most likely to be sexually attracted to men who appear to be
mature and wealthy
One's sexual orientation refers to a(n) ________ members of the other gender, our own gender, male and female genders, or to no one at all.
sexual attraction toward
Mark was born with both male and female biological sexual characteristics at birth. This means that Mark is
A genetic male who was born with small testes and is sterile has the condition known as
How does biology influence our gender psychology?
both genetically and psychologically
The main male hormone is
Steven is having sex with his girlfriend. His muscles are now contracting all over his body and his breathing, pulse, and blood pressure are increasing. Steven is currently in the ________ stage of the sexual response cycle.
In everyday behavior, men are LESS likely than women to
smile at others
When his older sister takes his toys away from him, 9-year-old Shane does not cry because he has learned that boys should never cry. Shane's behavior best illustrates the importance of
Your father-in-law thinks that a same-sex orientation is a choice people make and is therefore not influenced by genetics. To dissuade him of this erroneous belief, you would be best advised to note that
gay men tend to have more gay relatives on their mother's side of the family than on their father's side
Which statement best describes how nature and nurture affect us?
We are both creatures and creators of our world
Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender Americans who responded to a national survey indicated that they thought that transgender people receive ________ social acceptance than gay men and ________ social acceptance than lesbians.
People who are intersex most clearly experience an unusual development of their
Female identical twins are more likely to differ in sexual orientation than
male identical twins
More than in other mammalian females, the sex drive in human females is responsive to their ________ levels.
In remembering the spatial locations of objects, straight men perform
worse than gay men and worse than straight women
If pregnant sheep are injected with ________ during a critical period of prenatal development, their female offspring will show same-sex behavior.
Which of the following is NOT an example of sexual assault?
unwanted sexual advances
Forty-year-old Alicia has been happily married for 15 years. However, since her ovaries were removed, she has lost most of her interest in sexual activities. Which of the following might be causing this?
a drop in her testosterone levels
Children tend to organize their worlds into male and female categories. This best illustrates their use of
Which of the following can help distinguish straight and gay identical twins?
epigenetic marks that may be related to the development of sexual orientation
Which of the following is NOT considered a primary sex characteristic?
Raymond is sexually active and wants to avoid contracting AIDS. To prevent that from happening, Raymond most clearly needs to avoid unprotected sex with partners infected with
Which of the following would you most likely observe on extended visits to foreign countries?
more men than women involved in fistfights
Based on the biopsychosocial model, our sexual motivation
depends on internal biological factors but even more by psychological and social-cultural factors
The refractory period is the
time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm.
For 11-year-old Marlene, puberty means that she will experience several physical changes, such as development of her ovaries and her first menstrual period. This best illustrates adolescent development of
primary sex characteristics
Compared with the average man, the average woman experiences a greater risk of
Which of the following strategies has NOT been effective in reducing sexual aggression?
treating perpetrators of sexual aggression through psychotherapy
The first significant studies of rape victim blaming were conducted in the
Ramone and Sally are being interviewed for the same position. During the interview, Ramone maintains self-confidence, independence, and eye contact with the person conducting the interview. Sally makes less contact during her interview but is generally warm and welcoming. These differences demonstrate gender variations in
Adam, a 25-year-old student, is sexually attracted to members of the other gender; his brother Chaim, a 21-year-old college senior, experiences same-sex attractions. The brothers obviously differ in their
DJ's psychology professor states that gay men tend to have more gay relatives on their mother's side than on their father's, which supports a genetic basis for a same-sex orientation. The position explained by DJ's professor is called
the fertile females theory
Karen felt so passionate while interacting with her boyfriend that her feelings overwhelmed her intentions to delay having sex. Her behavior is best explained by the fact that sexual arousal
reduces impulse control
Which of the following demonstrates a recent shift in gender roles in the United States?
As compared with men, women earn higher college grades and more college degrees and show equal competence in STEM-related activities
Allison is sexually attracted to other females. She can best be described as
having a same-sex orientation
Amanda and Thomas have three sons. Amanda is pregnant with another son. Research on the older-brother effect indicates that the chances of the fourth son being gay is ________ percent.
more than 4
Which of the following is NOT actually a need?
Dr. Yu is studying sexual behavior. In her research, she focuses on the role of sex hormones and sexual maturity in this behavior. According to the biopsychosocial approach, Dr. Yu is studying the ________ influences on sexual behavior.
It has been said that the most significant sex organ is the
Although Millie and Michael have much in common as a couple, they differ in how they want to satisfy their need to belong. Millie most enjoys more intimate friendships that explore relationships, whereas Michael most enjoys side-by-side activities with friends. Their unique activity preferences best illustrate a difference in
The incidence of same-sex attraction has been found to be slightly higher than usual among
men who have older brothers
Female orgasmic disorder is a form of
A culturally modeled guide for how to act in particular situations is called a(n)
Because of the long incubation period of AIDS it can be expected that most who have the disease were infected in their
teens and twenties
A girl's first menstrual period is called
Girls typically play in ________ groups than do boys and, during their teens, girls spend ________ time with friends than do boys.
Compared with the average woman, the average man is ________ likely to suffer depression and is ________ likely to die by suicide.
Diets laden with hormone-mimicking chemicals are suspected of contributing to girls' earlier experience of
When she was conceived, both of Abigail's parents contributed an X chromosome, which defined her ________. As she grew up, she experienced herself as being a typical young woman, which defined her ________.
Gender typing refers to acquiring
a traditional masculine or feminine role
Men and women are most likely to differ in their levels of
Sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of the self or others, and/or nonconsenting persons is called
Alane's clitoris has swelled and her vagina is expanding and secreting lubricant, as her breast and nipples enlarge from her boyfriend's caresses and soft kisses. Alane is in which stage of the sexual response cycle?
In one survey, 72 percent of sexually active 12- to 17-year-old American girls said
they regretted having had sex
People who are intersex may be born with unusual combinations of their
male and female chromosomes, hormones, and anatomy
Some research has found that extensive online pornography exposure does all of the following EXCEPT
increase sexual desire
Both Dr. Cherice Bogart and Dr. Branson Smith are practicing physicians. Considering the gender differences in compensation, it can be expected that Dr. Smith will earn roughly ________ more than Dr. Bogart each year.
________ of our chromosomes are considered unisex.
Girls who have experienced stress related to father absence, sexual abuse, or insecure feelings of attachment to their parents or caregivers tend to experience ________ a few months earlier than average.
Visible male-female differences begin to emerge
during the two-year period of rapid physical development associated with puberty
A problem that consistently interferes with a person's ability to complete the sexual response cycle is called a(n)
Bradley is heterosexual and is looking for a partner. He is most likely to prefer women who have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
Which of the following is passed much more often from men to women than from women to men?
A gender identity that involves some combination of male and female or neither male nor female is referred to as
Sex-reassignment surgery today would most likely be sought by individuals who
Puberty is most closely related to the onset of
Jake just spent an evening watching pornographic movies of women who actually seemed to enjoy being forced to have sex. This experience may lead him to
be more willing to hurt women
Which biological influences trigger anatomical differences in males, females, and people who are intersex?
Which country is LEAST likely to have favorable attitudes toward same-sex attraction?
Clarissa is a preteen whose primary and secondary sex characteristics are just beginning to develop. When can she expect to experience menarche?
11.5 to 13.5 years of age
George and Jenny, both in their late twenties, are at the beginning of a potentially romantic relationship. Research suggests that ________ is the one who is most likely to initiate greater sexual intimacy in their relationship and ________ is the one who has a more accepting attitude toward uncommitted sex.
Samantha is an administrative assistant who has repeatedly received unwanted sexual advances and has been the target of obscene remarks at work. She is experiencing
Men tend to experience ________ romantic and ________ frequent fantasies about sex than do women.
Kim is looking for a boyfriend, and Ralph is looking for a girlfriend. Both Kim and Ralph will be most concerned about finding mates with all of the following traits except
A man who consistently reaches a sexual climax before he or his sexual partner wishes is experiencing
There exists a bidirectional relationship between sexual arousal and testosterone levels. Which of the following best describes that relationship?
Sexual arousal can be a cause and a consequence of increased testosterone levels
Marge is married, and her sexual desire has recently increased slightly. Her husband has noticed this change just based on changes in her voice and behavior. Some evidence suggests that ________ may be related to this slight increase in sexual desire.
Gay men tend to have ________ gay relatives on their mother's side of the family than on their father's side. The heterosexual maternal relatives of gay men produce ________ offspring than do the maternal relatives of heterosexual men.
A power-hungry female politician is ________ likely to be perceived as aggressive than a power-hungry male politician. Among male and female politicians who seem power-hungry, women are ________ successful than men.
The heterosexual maternal relatives of gay men produce ________ offspring than the maternal relatives of heterosexual men, and male same-sex attraction is more likely to be transmitted by genes from the ________ side of the family.
Deedra and Deon work in occupations that are highly stressful. Research on gender similarities and differences suggests that when they are looking for someone to whom they can confide their personal worries, Deedra is likely to turn to ________ and Deon is likely to turn to ________.
Francisco's teen son has asked him, "How do we know that Earth is not flat?" Francisco proceeds to answer the question, even though he is not an expert in this area, rather than admit to his son that he isn't sure. This phenomenon, which is more common among males, is called
the male answer syndrome
Gender stereotypes are most rigid around age
What percentage of rape victims are between the ages of 11 and 24?
When his mother offered to play leapfrog with him, Joseph protested, "I'm not going to play a girl's game!" Joseph's reaction best illustrates the impact of
Research has shown, by using brain imaging techniques, that those who seek medical sex-reassignment have ________ when compared with those whose gender identity matches their birth-designated sex.
some different neural tracks
In a study of Welsh pedestrians, women rated a man as ________ if he was pictured at the wheel of a swanky Bentley rather than a humble Ford Fiesta. Men rated a woman as ________ if she was pictured at the wheel of the expensive car rather than the inexpensive car.
more attractive; no more attractive
Mr. Sterny scolds his son when he cries but kisses his daughter when she cries. Mr. Sterny's contribution to the gender typing of his children would most likely be highlighted by
social learning theory
The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ________ is/are to an adolescent girl.
The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a
Paula insists on wearing very feminine-looking outfits because she wants to be treated like a woman. This best illustrates the impact of
When she was learning how to drive, Jennifer's father repeatedly told her not to rely on the rearview mirrors when checking for cars. He told her that she will also need to turn her head to check for cars because she has a ________ that would prevent her from seeing all the cars.
The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Wiesel consist of
nerve cells in the brain
The ability to adjust to changed sensory input is called
Brain scans have shown that hypnosis increases activity in the brain's attention systems. Although hypnosis does not block sensory input, it appears to block our attention to it, lending support to the role of ________ in hypnosis.
In the process of transforming sound waves into nerve impulses that our brain interprets, vibrations of the ________ send ripples through the fluid that is located inside the ________.
oval window; cochlea
Which cells for visual processing are located closest to the back of the retina?
rods and cones
One theory suggests that hypnosis simply involves getting caught up in role-playing the feelings and behaviors appropriate for "good hypnotic subjects." This theory emphasizes that hypnosis is a form of
The influence of schemas on our interpretations of unfamiliar information best illustrates
Psychics who have worked with police departments in an effort to solve difficult crimes have demonstrated the value of
none of these things
Feature detectors were first identified by
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel
Jennifer can no longer recognize familiar faces. She can still recognize other objects and forms, however. Which area of Jennifer's brain was most likely damaged?
fusiform face area
Which of the following theories proposes that opposing retinal processes enable color vision?
Color receptors are to ________ as opposing retinal processes are to ________.
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory; opponent-process theory
John Locke is to Immanuel Kant as ________ is to ________.
The retina is best described as the
light-sensitive inner surface of the eye that contains rods and cones
Prolonged exposure to sounds above ________ decibels is related to hearing loss.
During the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever severely affects your sense of smell. At the same time, your food all seems to taste the same. This illustrates the importance of
Vince just watched a movie in which one of the characters could levitate objects. The character's ability is known as
A cold metal necklace that touches side-by-side cold and pressure spots on your neck is most likely to trigger a sense of
Which of the following is the third step in sensory processing?
delivering neural information to the brain
Nancy insists that her dreams frequently enable her to perceive and predict future events. Nancy is claiming to possess the power of
Which of the following explains how the upside-down image on the retina produces a right-side-up image?
the millions of receptor cells in the retina convert particles of light energy into neural impulses and forward them to the brain, which reassembles them into an upright image
Dwayne's excellent peripheral vision enabled him to detect a brief flash of lightning far to his right, even though he couldn't recognize what he had seen. His experience best illustrates
On the way to the temporal lobe's auditory cortex, neural impulses from the auditory nerve are first relayed to the
Damage to the hammer, anvil, and stirrup is most likely to cause
conduction hearing loss
How do new technologies take advantage of our attention to changing stimuli?
they understand that changing stimuli, such as new tweets or breaking news stories, are more likely to grab our attention, and thus our clicks
If hikers perceive a hill as steeper when carrying heavy backpacks rather than light backpacks, this would best illustrate
Interestingly, each of the 50 to 100 receptor cells located in each of our taste bud pores
transmits its message to a matching partner cell in our temporal lobe
A posthypnotic suggestion is made ________ a hypnosis session and intended to be carried out in the future when the subject is ________.
during; no longer hypnotized
Juanita has developed cataracts in both eyes, preventing her from being able to see her husband's face. Juanita most clearly is deficient in
When James learned that many students had received a failing grade on the midterm exam, he was no longer disappointed by his C grade. His experience best illustrates the importance of
Stroking side-by-side pressure spots is most likely to trigger a sense of
Although open books cast a trapezoidal image on the retina, readers typically perceive the books as rectangular objects. This illustrates the importance of
The tendency to hear the steady drip of a leaky sink faucet as if it were a repeating rhythm of two or more beats best illustrates
Knowing about the effects of the perceived distance of objects on their perceived size helps us to understand
the Moon illusion
In an experiment, researchers expose participants to subliminal recordings designed to boost their self-esteem. Based on existing research, you would be correct in predicting that the recordings will
have no more impact on participants' self-esteem than a placebo
Opponent-process cells have been located in the
retina and thalamus
Visual perceptions of objects often change when the objects are viewed in different surroundings. This best illustrates
Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called
If you stared at a house as you walked down a street, the trees in front of the house would appear to be moving
In the opposite direction to you; in the same direction as you
In surgical experiments, hypnotized patients have required ________ medication and they have recovered ________ than patients in unhypnotized control groups.
For some people, hearing certain sounds may activate color-sensitive regions of the cortex so as to trigger a sensation of color. This phenomenon is called
After learning that her colleague at work had experienced several depressive episodes during his college years, Erika incorrectly perceived her colleague's laughter as artificial and phony. This best illustrates the impact of
Kevin has more difficulty catching footballs that are thrown to him than his classmates do because he was born blind in his right eye. His difficulty can best be attributed to his lack of the depth cue known as
As a rapper who has experienced prolonged exposure to high-amplitude sounds, Mark is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the
Kelli falls down regularly. This may demonstrate that she has a problem with her
When the Moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This effect is primarily a result of
monocular distance cues, which make the horizon Moon seem farther away
Which of the following is located on the tips of hair cells in the inner ear?
Dennis is in his late teens and already suffers from hearing loss. Which of the following is a likely cause?
listening to loud music for headphones
Receptor cells for our sense of ________ reproduce themselves every week or two.
Objects are brought into focus on the retina by changes in the curvature and thickness of the
As Danielle goes outside her eyes receive light energy from the sun. Her eyes then ________ the light energy into neural messages that create what she sees.
During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Jones could not detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Jones'
Sensory adaptation refers to
diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus
As Claire walks in the mall, she smells the scent from the candle store. The smell reminds her of celebrating Christmas at her grandmother's house as a child. This demonstrates the
connection between smell and memories
Tiny hair-like receptors that monitor the tilting of your head are located in the
Yesterday, after carrying groceries that weighed 5 pounds for a while, Christine picked up her purse, which weighed half a pound. She immediately noticed a change in the weight of what she was carrying. If her groceries had weighed 10 pounds, the just noticeable difference with the addition of her purse would be ________ pound(s).
Recognizing an odor as the familiar smell of blueberry pie is an example of
Sensing the position and movement of your throwing arm while passing a football best illustrates
When Dominic first wore a new pair of glasses, he felt dizzy. After a few days, however, he felt fine while wearing the glasses and appreciated his corrected vision. This demonstrates
Which of the following best explains the current understanding of color processing?
color processing occurs in two stages
Carrie is watching a movie at home but the sound on her television is rather low. She asks her brother to turn up the sound. After he increases the volume only 5 decibels, Carrie says "Okay. That's good. Thank you." Carrie's detection of this slight increase in volume demonstrates
the just noticeable difference
The brain's release of endorphins reduces
The surface of the basilar membrane is lined with
The perception of the letter "t" as two intersecting lines rather than as four nonintersecting lines illustrates the principle of
To experience color constancy, we should view things
in relation to surrounding objects
The ________ is a snail-shaped tube in the inner ear.
The amount of energy a light wave contains is its
Sensory nerve endings that respond to stimuli are called
Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the
Suppose two objects cast retinal images of the same size. The object that appears to be closer is perceived as ________ the object that appears to be more distant.
The conversion of a fresh coffee aroma into neural impulses by sensory receptor cells best illustrates
A light wave's intensity is determined by its
The same brand of caramel candies tasted better to Maria when she thought they cost $20 a pound than when she thought they cost half that much. This best illustrates the impact of
Retinal disparity refers to the
somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object
The olfactory receptors are activated by
Juan's psychology professor is discussing color processing. The professor shows a solid green square on the projector and asks students to stare at the green square for 30 seconds. When the 30 seconds have passed, the professor then shows a blank white screen. Juan sees a red square that is not actually on the screen. The professor has just demonstrated
The colored muscle that constricts when you are about to answer No is the
Just prior to awakening Chanda from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseated whenever he lit a cigarette. Chanda's therapist was attempting to make use of
Which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride?
Which of the following is the correct order in which the retina's neural layers process visual stimulation?
rods and cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
We may perceive a granola bar as less expensive when we are most hungry. This best illustrates that perceptions are influenced by
Ringing in the ears after exposure to loud music is most likely to be caused by damage to
Axons of the ________ twine together to form the ________.
ganglion cells; optic nerve
Professor Thomas is conducting a research study on subliminal priming. She hypothesizes that participants who have been exposed to subliminal messages related to fast food will be more likely to select fast food for their complimentary snack, than with those who have not been exposed to those messages. This hypothesis best illustrates
George has color-deficient vision. This means that he
lacks functioning red or green sensitive cones
Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ________ of a sound.
Retinal disparity is an important cue for
The taste sensation umami is most likely to attract us to foods that are
rich in protein
If the ________ of the temporal lobe is stimulated, a person might spontaneously see faces.
fusiform face area
Psychics' suggestions that perception can occur apart from sensory input involve claims for the existence of
Which of the following is an example of how our ancestors may have used taste to survive?
spitting out a food that tasted unpleasant
As Stacey, a farmer, looked across her field, the parallel rows of young corn plants appeared to converge in the distance. This provided her with a distance cue known as
The McGurk effect best illustrates
The interaction of brain circuits that process sensory experiences with brain circuits responsible for judgments contributes to what psychologists call
Because of the brain's circuitry, memories are likely to be most quickly evoked by exposure to
Our capacity for perceptual constancy even as illumination and retinal image change illustrates the importance of
Researchers have found that when mice smell a predator's scent, their brain
The inward angle of the eyes focusing on a near object is referred to as
Premature human babies gain weight faster if they are stimulated by
A time lag between sound waves striking our left and right ears is important for accurately
The perceived brightness of visible light waves is determined by their
Erin is visiting an art museum and is admiring all of the beautiful paintings. Which of the following helps give rise to the color sensations that Erin sees in the paintings?
One plausible theory suggests that hypnotic pain relief may result from
Areas of the brain involved in memory are closest to areas of the brain responsible for our sense of
Theresa was born with cataracts that were not surgically removed until she was 3 years old. As a result, Theresa is most likely to
have inadequate neural connections in her brain's visual cortex
Maxine is walking through a field looking at the flowers. She sees some that are yellow and others that are white. The color that she is seeing is referred to as the ________ that is determined by the light's ________.
The loudness of sounds is determined by the ________ of sound waves.
Depth perception that uses information transmitted to both eyes depends on
Early in the twentieth century, a group of German psychologists noticed that people tend to organize a cluster of sensations into a(n)
Damage to the cochlea's hair cell receptors is most likely to result in
sensorineural hearing loss
Steve continued playing with minimal pain during the closing quarter of an exciting school basketball game even though he had severely sprained his wrist when he tried to make a 3-point basket. It is likely that Steve's pain was psychologically minimized by ________ and physically minimized by the brain's release of ________.
Research with distorting goggles best supports the view of human perception advanced by