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The Science of Psychology - Chapter 2 Questions
(5th Edition) - McGrawHill
Terms in this set (68)
The scientific method is what makes psychology a science. By following the steps in order, psychologists can engage in the research process. Please put the following in order from the first step in the scientific method to the last step.
1. Observation of some interesting situations or experiments
2. Create a hypothesis and make predictions
3. Conduct research
4. Formulate conclusions from the research
5. Evaluate the theory
What is a theory?
A broad idea, or set of closely related ideas, that attempts to explain certain observations
What is the term for an educated guess based on a theory that can be tested?
In order to test a hypothesis and conduct valid empirical research, a psychologist first needs
a concrete way to measure the variable of interest.
After analyzing their data, what would researchers do next?
Draw conclusions about their research
Which of the following are steps in the scientific method?
Observing some phenomenon,
Formulating hypotheses and predictions,
A theory is
a broad idea that can be used to explain observations.
A hypothesis is
an 'educated guess' or a prediction that can be tested.
A test of intelligence is given to a subject. The subject scores a 110 on the first administration. Six months later, the same subject is given the same test again and receives a score of 75. After another six months has passed, the subject is given the test one last time and receives a score of 138. What conclusions can be drawn from these scores?
The scores are not reliable.
The third step in the scientific method is the need to collect and analyze data, that is, the testing of hypotheses by conducting empirical _________ by collecting and analyzing data.
Correlational research is about establishing relationships between two or more _________.
After researchers have gathered data, what do they do next?
Researchers would analyze their data to see if it supports their hypothesis,
Researchers would analyze the findings to see if the results would tell us about the theory used to guide their study
Descriptive research serves the purpose of observing and recording ______ that can be used as data.
Correlational research involves studies that are concerned with identifying the relationships between two or more ________ in order to describe how they change together.
A broad set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations is known as
involves manipulating one or more variables in order to determine their effect on other variables.
Results are considered reliable if they can be ___.
_______ assignment means that researchers assign participants to group by chance.
Which of the following are the three basic types of research used in psychology?
Correlational, Descriptive, Experimental
An independent variable is
the manipulated experimental factor in an experiment.
Descriptive research serves the purpose of
determining the basic dimensions of a phenomenon and defining what it is or how often it occurs; but it cannot provide causal information.
The _____________ group consists of participants who will receive the research manipulation.
The key feature of a correlational study is
that the factors of interest are measured or observed to see how they are related
Researchers must use experiments to determine whether ____________ relationships exist between variables.
What is random assignment?
The assignment of participants to research groups by chance
In a study of the helpfulness of yoga in reducing postpartum depression, some participants did not engage in yoga at all. These individuals were like part of the _______ group.
Dan participates in a study that measures the pleasure he feels after eating a slice from a variety of fruit pies. The independent variable in this study would be ______.
the kind of pie Dan eats
Research participant bias is
the influence of research participants' expectations on their behavior within an experiment.
In a study of drug efficacy for depression management, Group 1 received a placebo, Group 2 received 2mg of the drug, and Group 3 received 5 mg of the drug. Which group(s) were the experimental group(s)?
Groups 2 and 3
A researcher is interested in studying visibility of tattoos on perceptions of competence for work. What type of design would be appropriate for this topic?
Case study, observational, experimental
The entire group about which a researcher wants to draw conclusions is called the _______.
___________ or experimental research provides researchers a way to control many aspects of the situation.
The ___________ group in an experiment doesn't end up receiving any manipulation.
Statistics are mathematical methods for reporting ______.
When participants' behavior is affected by what they think the researcher wants to find, or by their expectations about what's happening to them, this is known as ______ bias.
True or false: Descriptive statistics reveal the specific characteristics of data and the similarities between them.
A researcher is studying how trauma might affect a person's day-to-day functioning. What types of research might the designer choose to conduct this study?
Experimental, Descriptive, Correlational
The distance between the highest and the lowest scores in any data set is considered the ______.
The __________ refers to the entire group that a research is interested in studying.
Molly noticed that within her dataset the scores are pretty different from each other. Which of the following statistic would be the best to capture the variability in scores?
What setting would a researcher choose if they needed to remove of the complex factors of the real world to conduct their research?
___________ statistics are the mathematical methods used to indicate whether data sufficiently support or confirm a research hypothesis.
Statistics are used to ____ the data collected from a research study.
Why are ethical guidelines used by researchers?
So that the research does not physically harm the participants,
So that the research does not cause the participant emotional distress,
So that the research proposal is accepted by the review board
Descriptive statistics are the mathematical procedures
that researchers have developed to describe and summarize sets of data in a meaningful way.
True or false: Researchers have limited guidelines for research involving animals.
True or false: The range is calculated by adding the highest and lowest scores in a data set and then dividing by the number of scores in the dataset.
Because most journalists, television reporters, and other media personnel are not usually trained in psychological research, one must
consume psychological information critically and wisely.
The average amount of variability, or difference, in scores relative to the mean in a dataset is considered the __________.
Media reported that a research study found that most of us can not react when threatened by an attacker. What specific information might be important to know about the details of this study?
Information about the characteristics and size of the sample
The purpose of inferential statistics is to _______.
determine whether a hypothesis has been supported
When a participate knows what is involved in the research and understands any risks involved
The responsibility of the researcher to protect identifying information of participants when possible
When participants are told about the research purpose and methods used in the study
When a participant is not told about the purpose or true intention of the study
The media reported that college students are not as happy as those who are not in college. You are happy. You are in college. Is there something wrong with you?
No - the media may not have reported all the pertinent details of the research findings,
No - the results of a group study are not always relevant to an individual
Which of the following statements are true about conducting research with animals?
Researchers sometimes do things to research animals that would be unethical if done to humans,
Researchers follow strict ethical guidelines whether their participants are humans or animals,
Researchers working with animals follow standards of care for the animals' well-being
True or False: The media often has trouble accurately informing us about the findings of psychological research study and its implications for our lives.
The media reports that a research study found that students learn better if they eat chocolate while reading. If your teacher insists that you eat chocolate, based on this report, what errors is he making?
The teacher is assuming that the class is similar to the participants in the study,
The teacher is not thinking critically about this media report,
The teacher is overgeneralizing the results of this report to all students
A University of Michigan research study found that the more a person uses Facebook, the worse they feel. The study found that Facebook use led to declines in happiness and overall life satisfaction. Researchers tested the variables of happiness and satisfaction on 82 college students. Should you stop using Facebook?
No- This is only one study. I doubt all people feel worse the more they use Facebook
No- The study was only conducted on 82 college students. That is a pretty small sample
Swedish researchers found that women who had experienced divorce or a family member's illness in their 50s to 60s were more likely to develop dementia or Alzheimer's disease in their 70s or 80s. What conclusion can we draw from this study?
70-year old women might develop Alzheimer's disease.
Generalizing research results of a group study to a(n) __________ may encourage a person to falsely apply the results to their own situation.
A study presented at the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in Boston and published in the Journal of Fertility and Sterility, suggests that processed meat intake is linked to poorer semen quality, and fish is linked to better semen quality. What elements of this story support the possibility that this research is credible?
The research was published by a credible journal,
The research suggests that there is a link between food intake and sperm count,
The research was presented to a credible professional group
Writing about one's own ___________ can have health and immune system benefits, according to research.
Which one of the following statements is true?
Most psychological questions can be answered with a single research study
A single research study is likely to provide conclusive answers
Most psychological questions need many research studies to provide answers
A single research study will provide answers that applies to all of us
Most psychological questions need many research studies to provide answers
New research suggests the size of your car affects how you drive. If you have a big car, studies show you may be more likely to break the law. It has to do with posture and how powerful you feel. Researcher Andy Yap from MIT says if you're in a car that allows you to sprawl out, it can that make you feel more powerful and that in turn, can lead to unethical behavior. What conclusion can we draw from this study?
Driving big cars may make us feel powerful and we might speed
The headline is: "Study says sniffing rosemary improves memory by 75%." The story reports that researchers presented evidence that sniffing the essential oil from the herb rosemary improved long-term memory and performance in mental arithmetic. To determine the credibility of this research what other information do you need to consider?
Who conducted the research study?
Was the study reviewed by an expert panel?
How many participants were in the research study?
When writing about your feelings, which of the following would be most helpful?
You should try to write every day, even for just a few minutes.
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