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Bio Ch. 32
Terms in this set (80)
Cell similarities of animals, plants and fungi VERY SIMPLE
All are unicellular
What is the protein in animals that gives structure like how cell walls do in plants and fungi?
Is collagen found in plants and fungi?
The cells of animals are organized into what?
Groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit
Why can plants and fungi not move the body around?
They lack muscles and nerves cells
How do most animals reproduce? Sexually or asexually?
What dominates the lifecycle? Diploid or haploid?
What happens in the haploid stage of animal reproduction? This is unlike plants and fungi
Sperm and egg cells are produced directly by meiotic division
A succession of mitotic cell divisions without cell growth between divisions
What does cleavage lead to the formation of?
A multicellular stage called blastula
What stage follows the blastula stage?
Layers of the embryonic tissue that will develop into adult body parts are produced
What is the resulting development stage of gastrulation called?
What state do most life cycles of animals go through?
A sexually immature form of an animal that is morphologically distinct from the adult
How do animals get nutrition?
They ingest their food
What kind of cells do animals have?
Multicellular eukaryotic cells
What do animal cells lack?
A cell wall
What proteins are the bodies of animals held together by?
What are the unique defining characteristics of animals?
Nervous tissue and muscle tissue
What is tissue?
Groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit
How do most animals reproduce?
What stage (haploid or diploid) dominates most of the life cycle?
After a sperm fertilizes an egg, what happens to the zygote?
Undergoes rapid cell division called cleavage
What does the blastula undergo?
What does gastrulation form?
A gastrula with different layers of embryonic tissues
In most animal species, what fertilizes the egg?
A flagellated haploid sperm
Is the egg haploid or diploid in animals?
Mitotic cell division
What does cleavage lead to?
The formation of the blastula
What do larvae have to undergo to transform into an adult?
What is a gene that only animals have?
What do hox genes do?
Regulate the development of body formation
What gene may have been part of the eukaryotic lineage that gave rise to animals?
Edward Lewis, Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, and Eric Wieschaus received the nobel prize for medicine in 1995 for what?
Discovering hox genes by genetic analsys of mutant fruit flies
What do hox genes control?
What did Lewis et al find?
Cluster of homeotoic (hox) genes in the chromosome and colinearity in time and space
The gene order in the cluster what the order of expression of genes
Mimics the order of expression of genes and their functions along the anterior-posterior body axis
What did Lewis et al find about temporal colinearity?
Anterior genes expressed first during development and posterior later
First duplication of hox genes occurred when?
Second duplication of hox genes occurred when?
What did the duplication of first hox cluster do?
Duplication of cluster provided extra regulatory control to direct new body plans eg. producing a vertebrae
What did the duplicaiton of the 2nd host cluster do?
Provided greater regulatory control allowing greater structural complexity
Are there more animals that are living or extinct?
How many species have been named?
More than 1.3 million
The common ancestor of all living animals is likely to have lived when?
Between 700 to 770 mya
What modern protists did the common ancestor resemble?
What are the closest living relatives of animals?
What group of protists are the closest living relatives to animals?
What can studying colony formation of choanoflagellates provide?
A context for reconstruction the evolution of animal multi-cellularity
How does the transition of single cells to multicellular colonies occur in choanoflagellates?
Occurs by cell division, with sister cells remaining stably attached
What three lines of evidence shows that choanoflagellates are closely related to animals?
1. Sequence data indicates that choanoflagellates and animals are sister groups
2. Collar cells are only found in animals and not in protists
3. Choanoflagellate cells resemble collar cells
Early members of the animal fossil record include the Edicaran biota which dates from?
When did the Cambrian explosion occur?
What did the Cambrian explosion mark for fossils?
Earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals
Most of the fossils from the Cambrian explosion are of what?
Organisms that have bilateral symmetric form, complete digestive tract, one way digestive system
Three hypotheses about the cause of the Cambrian explosion and decline of Edicaran biota
1. New predator prey relationships
2. A rise in atmospheric oxygen
3. Evolution of hox gene complex
How long was the Cambrian explosion?
10 million years
Fossil field located in British Columbia that show fossils from the Cambrian explosion
Was constructed upside down and revised to have the spines up
Ancestors of the lineages that we identify from the Cambrian explosion
When did "life get big"
Three causes for animal diversification
1. Ecological causes
2. Geological causes
3. Genetic causes
What were the ecological causes for animal diversification?
Emergence of predator prey relationships. This lead to evolutionary adaptations such as protective shells and modes of locomotion
What were the geological causes for animal diversification?
Rise in atmospheric oxygen may have reached high enough concentrations to support active metabolism
What were the genetic causes for animal diversification?
The evolution of Hox gene complex
Explain how basic body plans have remained stable since the cambrian explosion?
1. Animal evolution has been new variations of old designs
2. New animal phyla have evolved since the cambrian
3. Variation in developmental patterns continue, allowing subtle changes in body structures and functions leading to speciation and the origin of taxa below the level of phylum
What was the rapid diversification of animals in the early Cambrian have been a result of?
Complex interplay of biotic and abiotic processes
What is one essential component of the cambrian explosion?
Bilaterian developmental systems
Germ layer covering the surface of the embryo
What does the ectoderm form?
Outer covering of the animal and in some, the central nervous system
Innermost germ layer that forms during gastrulation
What does the endoderm form?
Forms the lining of the digestive tract or cavity, and liver and lungs of vertebrates
What are animals that only have ectoderm and endoderm considered to be?
What is the third germ layer in bilaterally symmetrical animals called?
Fills the space between the ectoderm and the edoderm
What are bilaterally symmetrical animals considered to be?
What does the mesoderm form?
Muscles and most other organs between the digestive tract and outer covering of the animal
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