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Political Ideologies Quiz

Terms in this set (10)

Conservatism.

(Other options were: Socialism, Liberalism, Anarchism)

Conservatism, in the book, was defined as a negative response to liberalism and socialism which were "bought into the progressive and rationalist values of the Enlightenment" (pg. 128). While Conservative political movements have not been ideologically the same over the years they have shared common traits such as being: anti-liberal, reactionary, and authoritarian. However there are exceptions to these traits like in Britian were "conservatism has been tinged with liberalism." It emphasises the unconstrated free market and and can be divided in two sections: conservatism and neoconsercatism. Examples of neoconservatism can be seen in the US as "challenging" traditional conservatism with its brand of social authoritarianism and extreme nationalism to create a movement that had direct US domestic and foreign policy.

Conservatists, because of the title, has had issues with being at risk, due to the reaction to the name, for wanting to conserve the current systems that allow for privledge and power to continue rather than dismantling said systems. However, the "pride of place among these convictions is an aversion to rationalism...a product of the Enlightenment...celebrated the ability of human beings to construct societies on the basis of rational principles such as...liberty, equality, and fraternity" (pg. 130). Many conservative values derive from this anti-rationalism which as the book describes, shows "the conservative model of society as organic rather tahn mechanical...society cannot be taken apart and rearranged like the parts of a machine, rather, society is a little-understood, complex, and interdependent organism" (pg. 130). The main idea here is that changing society can have undesirable problems for rich people so don't. (JK)

Some conservatives do think change is good but it should be gradual and moderate and take care to preserve everything that is valuable to the society. However, even the book says that it is hard to define what is and isnt valuale and useful for the function of a society and unfortunately sometimes conservatives don't follow these guidelines and would prefer to preseve exisiting traditions and institutions.

The last thing to note about conservatism is the second value to take from their hate of rationalism which is the idea of human imperfection. "Conservatives are sceptical about the human capacity fully to understand their social and political environment" (pg. 131). Therefore we should all stick with what we know since effective self-government is a myth.

(I didn't mean to go this far into the definition it just kinda happened, I hope its useful tho)
True

traditional classical liberalism, new liberalism.

Liberalism is very diverse and is difficult to describe in one definition. In some countries it is associatied with the free market, but in the US (and some other countries but mainly US) it denotes state intervention. Liberal policies can also transcend liberal parties like in Britain where the "social agenda" was promoted by the Labour Party. "Core meaning of liberalism can be found in the concepts of liberty, tolerance, individualism, and a particular kind of equality" (pg. 121). Classical liberal tradution emphasizes negative liberty, new liberal tradition emphasizes posivitive liberty. Either freedome can remove external constraints or the state can remove obstacles to freedom. Depends.

There is a focus on the individual brough about by the Social Contract Theory. The individual is prior to the society. Rights are important to liberals and are given to people. Individuals should be protected by the state and at extreme levels individualism deny the state's rights to intervene in any aspect of the life of the individual. This focus on individuals comes from the liberal idea that individuals are rational. However, the importance of the individual also downplays the use of community which causes debate between liberals and communitartians. Liberals also believe individuals are equal and do not accept equality of outcome but equal opportunity.

Liberalism as stated by the social democratic left is considered new liberalism which differs from classical liberalism. New liberalism has a role for the state in correcting issues in the market and argued that the state didnt reduce liberty and increased it creating more opportunies. This had dominated much of the twentieth century,

Classical liberalism was popular in the nineteenth century and uses Adam Smoth's economic theory and Herbert Specer's social theory to show that the state's role shouldn't be limited so the state can remain internally and externally secury and to ensure priviate property is protected. This is justified (partly) by the idea "that the market is the most effective means of meeting human needs" (pg. 121). ( Moral dimension: limited state mazimizes freedome and rewards hard work.