### Which has greater angular speed, a horse near the outside rail of a merry-go-round or a horse near the inside rail? a) Neither- they both have the same angular speed. b) The inside horse c) The outside horse

a) Neither- they both have the same angular speed.

### Which of the following is NOT a unit of rotational speed? a) meters per second b) revolutions per minute c) revolutions per second d) rotations per second e) rotations per minute

a) meters per second

d) the can

c) 1/2g

b) increases

c) south

e) Zero

### The centripetal force exerted on stunt motorcyclist Biker Bob while riding on the inner vertical surface of a circular track is... a) friction b) his weight c) the normal force d) none of the above

c) the normal force

c) decreases

### Where is the center of gravity of a softball bat located? a) exactly halfway along the bat b) in the thin handle c) in the more massive end of the bat

c) in the more massive end of the bat

### When a wrench is slid spinning over a frictionless tabletop, its center of gravity follows... a) a regular straight-line path b) a wobbly path with irregular speed c) a straight-line path with irregular speed

a) a regular straight-line path

d) donut

### If an object is in unstable equilibrium, any displacement will.. a) raise its center of gravity b) increase its mass c) neither raise nor lower its center of gravity d) lower its center of gravity e) decrease its mass

d) lower its center of gravity

### If an object is in stable equilibrium any displacement will... a) raise its center of gravity b) neither raise nor lower its center of gravity c) decrease its mass d) increase its mass e) lower its center of gravity

a) raise its center of gravity

### If you try to touch your toes while standing flat against a wall, you will probably fall over. The reason this happens is that... a) your center of gravity is not located directly above your support area b) your center of gravity is outside your support area c) both A and B

a) your center of gravity is not located directly above your support area

### The center of mass of a human body is located at a point... a) that changes as a person bends over b) that is fixed, though different for different people c) that is always directly behind the belly button d) none of the above

a) that changes as a person bends over

a) neutral

### A picture hangs on a wall from a wire that is passed over a supporting nail. The picture is in stable equilibrium because... a) its center of gravity is directly below the supporting nail b) any slight push will raise its center of gravity c) after any small push, it will return to its original position d) all of the above

d) all of the above

### Based on stability concepts, you would expect a very broad tree to have... a) exceptionally strong roots b) very deep roots c) a very broad root system

c) a very broad root system

### Torque is defined as... a) mass times velocity b) force times lever arm c) momentum times radius d) force times time e) mass times acceleration

b) force time lever arn

a) inertia

a) the wheel

### Which has more rotational inertia, a girl running with her legs bent or the same girl running with her legs straight? a) with straight legs b) with bent legs c) both have the same rotational inertia

a) with straight legs

### Which objects roll down an incline with the greatest acceleration? a) objects with large rotational intertia b) objects with small rotational inertia c) acceleration is independent of rotational inertia in this case

b) objects with small rotational intertia

### Angular momentum is defined as... a) momentum times rotational velocity b) mass times velocity c) rotational inertia times linear velocity d) none of the above

d) none of the above

a) faster

b) the same

c) both A and B

c) 61.7-cm mark

e) the ball

### Newton had the insight to see that the... a) moon is moving b) moon orbits earth c) force on the moon has the same nature as the force on an apple d) moon always keeps one side toward earth e) none of the above

c) force on the moon had the same nature as the force on an apple

### Newton hypothesized that the moon... a) is a projectile b) is falling around Earth c) has a tangential velocity that prevents it from falling into Earth d) is actually attracted to Earth e) all of the above

e) all of the above

### Newton reasoned that the gravitational attraction between Earth and the moon must be... a) reduced by distance b) independent of distance c) directly proportional to distance d) the same at all distances e) all of the above

a) reduced by distance

c) increase also

b) increase

### If Earth's mass decreased to one half its original mass, with no change in radius, the your weight would... a) stay the same b) decrease to one half your original weight c) decrease to one quarter your original weight d) none of the above

b) decrease to one half you original weight

### The gravitational force between two massive spheres... a) is always an attraction b) depends on how massive they are c) depends inversely on the square of the distances between them d) all of the above

d) all of the above

### A very massive object A and a less massive object B move toward each other under the influence of mutual gravitation. Which force, if either, is greater? a) the force on B b) the force on A c) both forces are the same

c) both forced are the same

c) increases

### Gravitational forces are the weakest forces found in nature. Because of this... a) the gravitational effect between pencil and Earth cannot be seen b) there is no gravitational force between two 1-kg masses c) gravitational forces that are easily observed involve one or more large masses d) there is no movement between two 1-kg masses located near each other in space e) gravitational effects occur only when a large mass is involved

c) gravitational forces that are easily observed involve one or more large masses

e) 25 N

### By noticing that Uranus's orbit is perturbed and by using the law of gravitation, two astronomers independently discovered... a) Neptune b) exceptions to the law of gravity c) the law of gravitation fails at large distances d) Uranus has several moons

d) Uranus has several moons

### The force of gravity acting on you will increase if you... a) stand on a planet with a radius that is shrinking b) burrow deep inside the planet c) both A and B d) none of the above

a) stand on a planet with a radius that is shrinking

### The force of gravity on you is greatest when you are standing... a) far above Earth's surface b) just above Earth's surface c) on Earth's surface

c) on Earth's surface

### The reason the moon does not fall into Earth is that... a) Earth's gravitational field at the moon is weak b) the moon has a sufficiently large orbital speed c) gravitational pull of other planets keeps the moon up d) the moon has less mass than Earth e) none of the above

b) the moon has a sufficiently large orbital speed

### A lunar month is about 28 days. If the moon were closer to Earth than it is now, the lunar month would be... a) more than 28 days b) unchanged at 28 days c) less than 28 days

c) less than 28 days

### A hollow spherical planet is inhabited by people who live inside it, where the gravitational is zero. When a very massive space ship lands on the planet's surface, the gravitational field inside the planet is... a) nonzero, directed away from the spaceship b) still zero c) nonzero, directed toward the spaceship

c) nonzero, directed toward the spaceship

### A supplier wants to make a profit by buying metal by weight at one altitude and selling it at the same price per pound at another altitude. The supplier should... a) but at a low altitude and sell at a high altitude b) disregard altitude because it has a negligible effect c) buy at a high altitude and sell at low altitude

b) disregard altitude because it has a negligible effect

### Each of us weighs a tiny bit less on the ground floor of a skyscraper than we do on the top floor. One reason for this is that... a) the gravitational field is shielded inside the building b) the mass of the building attracts you upward slightly c) both A and B d) none of the above

b) the mass of the building attracts you upward slightly

a) twice as much

a) one quarter

c) Earth-sun

### If you stood atop a ladder on Earth that was as tall as Earth's radius (so you were twice as far from Earth's center) your weight atop the ladder would be... a) one-eighth its normal value b) one-quarter its normal value c) half its normal value d) none of the abo

b) one-quarter its normal value

### Why did Newton think there was a force acting on the moon? a) Because the moon always keeps one side toward Earth b) Because the moon moves in a curved path c) Because there is no air on the moon d) Because the moon is moving e) all of the above

b) Because the moon moves in a curved path

### since the earth is attracted to the sun, why doesn't it fall into the sun? a) Because it has too much mass to move toward the sun b) Because it has sufficient tangential velocity c) Because there is an equal force holding it away from the sun d) Because it has too much inertia to move toward the sun e) all of the above

b) Because it has sufficient tangential velocity

a) increase also

b) increase

### According to Newton's laws, a rock and a pebble will fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field because the gravitational force on each is... a) the same b) different, though the ratio of the force to the mass of each is the same c) none of the above

b) different, though the ratio of the force to the mass of each is the same

### The force is gravity on you is greatest when you are standing... a) just below earth's surface b) on Earth's surface c) just above Earth's surface

a) just below earth's surface

### The value of the acceleration due to gravity,g,... a) depends on the universal gravitational constant, G b) depends on the mass of Earth c) is different on different planets d) depends on the radius of Earth e) all of the above

e) all of the above

### We can tell if a gravitational force exists in a region of space if... a) we disturb a pendulum and it starts swinging b) we let go of a ball and it starts to move c) a force exists on a mass placed there d) we can weigh ourselves e) all of the above

e) all of the above

### Gravitational field lines show the... a) direction of the field at each point b) direction of the force on any mass c) direction a mass would be accelerated d) strength of the field e) all of the above

e) all of the above

b) smaller

c) zero

a) more

d) zero

### If you drop a stone into a whole drilled all the way to the other side of Earth, the stone will... a) speed up until it gets to the center of Earth b) slow down until it reaches the center of Earth c) speed up until it reaches the other side of Earth d) stop at the center of Earth

a) speed up until it gets to the center of Earth

### Ocean tides occur mainly because... a) of the gravitational pull of the sun on Earth b) water normally runs to the side of Earth away form the sun c) of different gravitational pulls of the moon on opposite sides of Earth d) as Earth rotates it leaves the ocean water somewhat behind it e) none of the above

c) of different gravitational pulls of the moon on opposite sides of Earth

### Th effect of the sun's pull on Earth's oceans is much less visible than that of the moon's pull because... a) earth is spinning so fast b) the sun is so far away c) earth is orbiting so fast d) the sun is radiating a lot of energy e) none of the above

b) the sun is so far away

### A lunar eclipse happens when... a) the moon is between Earth and the sun b) the sun is between Earth and the moon c) Earth is between the moon and the sun

c) Earth is between the moon and the sun

### A solar eclipse happens when... a) the moon is between Earth and the sun b) Earth is between the moon and the sun c) the sun is between the earth and the moon

a) the moon is between Earth and the sun

### Earth tides in which the solids surface of Earth rises and falls are caused by... a) many volcanic eruptions b) different forces between the moon and opposite parts of Earth c) the alignment of the sun and the moon d) the motion of water caused by ocean tides e) none of the above- the solid surface of Earth cannot have tides

b) different forced between the moon and opposite parts of Earth

### Suppose the moon had twice its present mass and still orbited earth at the same distance. In that case... a) the ocean tide facing the moon would rise, and the other tide would lower b) the ocean tides would be the same as they are now c) both ocean tides would be smaller d) the ocean tide facing the moon would lower, and the other tide would rise e) both ocean tides would be higher

e) both ocean tides would be higher

### Suppose the moon were covered with water and orbited Earth as it now does. In that case the moon would have... a) four tidal bulges b) no tidal bulges c) two tidal bulges d) one tidal bulge e) three tidal bulges

c) two tidal bulges

b) extra high

### There would still be two ocean tides per 24 hours if... a) the sun's influences on the tides were negligible b) Earth and mood had equal masses c) the moon had more mass than Earth d) any of the above e) none of the above

d) any of the above

### There are two main processes going on in the sun that keep the sun in existence. These processes are gravitation and... a) nuclear fusion b) electrostatic repulsion c) heat absorption

a) nuclear fusion

### A black hole is an object that... a) alters the space around it b) has an enormous density c) has an enormous gravitational field near it d) has an escape speed greater than the speed of light e) all of the above

e) all of the above

### If the sun were to collapse to form a black whole (quite unlikely), Earth would... a) immediately disappear b) spiral into the black hole c) orbit the black hole just as it orbits the sun now d) leave the solar system in the direction of its tangential velocity e) be drawn into the black hole

c) orbit the black hole just as it orbits the sun now

### When a star collapses to form a black hole, its mass... a) decreases b) remains the same c) increases

b) remains the same

### Gravitation weakens as the inverse square of distance, while tidal forces weaken with the inverse... a) cube of distance b) of distance c) square of distance

a) cube of distance

### In order for tidal forces to be significant, there must be a relatively large distance between... a) the body causing tides and the body experiencing tides b) opposite sides of the body experiencing tides c) both A and B d) none of the above

b) opposite sides of the body experiencing tides

c) the melon

a) Earth

c) 2

c) 8000 m/s

### The reason satellites orbit Earth at least 150 km above the surface is to... a) be above Earth's gravity b) make sure they are higher than the highest mountains c) be above Earth's atmosphere d) keep them out of the way of commercial airliners e) all of the above

c) be above Earth's atmosphere

a) constant

b) not constant

### A period of a satellite is defined as... a) the time for a satellite to cross the United States b) 1 second c) the time for a satellite to make one complete revolution around Earth d) 90 seconds e) 24 hours

c) the time for a satellite to make on complete revolution around Earth

d) both A and C

c) an ellipse

### The circular orbit of a satellite orbiting Earth is characterized by a constant... a) speed b) radius c) magnitude of acceleration d) all of the above e) none of the above

d) all of the above

### The fastest moving planet in a solar system is... a) the most massive planet b) any planet (they all move at the same speed) c) the smallest planet d) the planet nearest the sun

d) the planet nearest the sun

c) both a and b

b) earth

### A projectile is fired vertically from the surface if earth at 10 km/s. The projectile will... a) rise and then fall back to Earth's surface b) go into an elliptical orbit about Earth c) go into a circular orbit about earth d) none of the above

a) rise and then fall back to Earth's surface

b) escape earth

c) 11 km/s

### The Earlybird communications satellite hovers over the same point on Earth's equator indefinitely. This is because... a) its orbital period is 24 hours b) it is beyond the main pull of gravity c) it pulls as hard on Earth as earth pulls on it d) it is kept aloft by ground control e) forces other than Earth's gravity act on it

a) its orbital period is 24 hours

b) longer

### The force of gravity does work on a satellite when it is in... a) circular orbit b) elliptical orbit c) both A and B d) neither A nor B

b) elliptical orbit

### Where does a satellite in an elliptical orbit have the greatest kinetic energy? a) at the point closest to the planet b) exactly at the point halfway to the planet c) at the point farthest from the planet d) anywhere- its kinetic energy is constant e) more information needed

a) at the point closest to the planet

### Where does a satellite in a circular orbit have the greatest kinetic energy? a) at the point farthest from the planet b) exactly at the point halfway to the planet c) at the point closest to the planet d) anywhere- its kinetic energy is constant e) more information is needed

d) anywhere- its kinetic energy is constant

### What remains constant for a satellite in an elliptical orbit? a) its speed b) Its potential energy c) its total energy d) its kinetic energy e) its distance from the planet

c) its total energy

c) 11.2 km/s

c) 5m

### Minimal orbital speed about Earth is approximately 8km/s. Minimal orbit speed about the moon would be... a) less than 8km/s b) about 8km/s c) more than 8 km/s

a) less than 8 km/s

a) gaseous

### A chemical change occurs when... a) dissolved minerals solidify to form a crystal b) ethanol is purified through distillation c) salt deposits form from evaporated seawater d) a leaf changed color

d) a leaf changes color

### A physical change occurs when a.. a) peach spoils b) copper bowl tarnishes c) bracelet turns your wrist green d) glue gun melts a glue stick

d) glue gun melts a glue stick

d) reactants

b) light

d) mass

### A true statement about mass is that... a) mass is often measured with a spring scale b) mass is expressed in pounds c) as the force of the Earth's gravity on an object increases, the object's mass increases d) mass is determined by comparing the mass of an object with a set of standard masses that are part of a balance

d) mass is determined by comparing the mass of an object with a set of standard masses that are part of a balance

### Quantitative observations are recorded using... a) numerical information b) a control c) non- numerical information d) a system

a) numerical information

### Which of the following does not describe a unit? a) a unit compares what is being measured with a previously defined size b) a unit is usually preceded by a number c) a unit is not needed to find a solution to a problem d) the choice of unit depends on the quantity being measured

c) a unit is not needed to find a solution to a problem

### Electricity can convert oxygen into ozone. The ozone created by this process is... a) a new substance b) an isotope of oxygen c) a different state of oxygen d) an allotrope of oxygen

d) an allotrope of oxygen

### The only pure substance listed below is... a) bread dough b) vinegar (5% acetic acid) c) vitamin C (ascorbic acid) d) seawater

c) vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

a) a molecule

### "In any chemical or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed" is a statement of the... a) law of conservation of energy b) law of conservation of mass c) law of physical and chemical change d) system

a) law of conservation of energy

d) theory

### A theory is an accepted explanation of an observed phenomenon until... a) one study conflicts with the theory b) repeated data and observation conflict with the theory c) scientists disagree about the research method used to gather data d) an eminent scientist feels that it is inadequate

b) repeated data and observation conflict with the theory

### Poor precision in scientific measurement may arise from... a) the standard being too strict b) Human error c) limitations of the measuring instrument d) both human error and the limitations of the measuring instrument

d) both human error and the limitations of the measuring instrument

### the law of conservation of mass follows from the concept that... a) atoms are indivisible b) atoms of different elements have different properties c) matter is composed of atoms d) atoms can be destroyed in chemical reactons

a) atoms are indivisible

### the composition of the two oxides of lead, PbO and PbO2, are explained by the... a) periodic law b) law of multiple proportions c) atomic law d) law of conservation of mass

b) law of multiple proportions

a) John Dalton

### According to Dalton's atomic theory, atoms... a) are destroyed in chemical reactions b) can be divided c) of each element are identical in size, mass, and other properties d) of different elements cannot combine

c) of each element are identical in size, mass, and other properties

### Which is not part of Dalton's atomic theory? a) atoms can be divided, created, or destroyed b) the number of protons in an atom is its atomic number c) In chemical reactions atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged d) all matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms

b) the number of protons in an atom is its atomic number

a) cathode

d) electron

### Who explained the behavior of positively charged particles being deflected form metal foil as the nucleus? a) Ernest Rutherford b) john Dalton c) James Chadwick d) niels bohr

a) ernest rutherford

### In the gold foil experiment , most of the particles fired at the foil... a) bounced back b) passed through the foil c) were absorbed by the foil d) combined with the foil

b) passed through the foil

c) nucleus

### What did rutherford conclude about the structure of the atom? a) an atom is indivisible b) electrons make up the center of an atom c) an atom carries a positive charge d) an atom contains a small, dense, positively charged central region

d) an atom contains a small, dense, positively charged central region

b) neutron

C) A+B

### In a chemical equation, (aq) after one of the substances means that it is which one of these? A) a solid formed fro two ionic substances B) released as a gas C) dissolved in water D) produced form nothing

C) dissolved in water

A) 21

### Which type of reaction can be recognized by the general pattern A + BX -> AX + B? A) combustion B) synthesis C) single replacement D) decomposition

C) single replacement

### Which type of reaction involves one element and one compound reacting? A) decomposition B) double replacement C) single replacement D) synthesis

C) single replacement

D) combustion

A) synthesis

### Which type of reaction is SiO2 + HF -> SiF4 + H2O? A) synthesis B) double replacement C) single replacement D) combusiton

B) single replacement

### Which types of reactions are essentially opposites of one another? A) combusition and synthesis B) single replacement and double replacement C) synthesis and single replacement D) synthesis and decompostition

D) synthesis and decomposition

C) 4,3,1

D) Mg3N2

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